Key player in cell metabolism identified

(Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)) Published in Nature Cell Biology (NCB), the study shows that the EXD2 protein is critical for the mitochondria, the cell's powerhouses, to produce energy. This protein was previously thought to be located in the cell nucleus and to be involved in DNA repair. The results contribute to our basic understanding of mitochondria and suggest that EXD2 could be important for fertility and represent a potential target for cancer therapy.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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ConclusionsThe emergence of new drugs for mCRPC has improved treatment options dramatically. Currently, systemic treatment options for mCRPC include hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radionuclide therapy as well as bone-modifying agents and palliative or supportive measures. Further, new genetically targeted agents (PARP inhibitors and PD-1 inhibitors) are on the horizon for certain subsets of biomarker-selected patients. The best strategies for patient selection and optimal sequential use to achieve the longest cumulative survival improvement and to prevent early resistance remain unclear.Patient summaryT...
Source: European Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Abstract Cellular senescence, a permanent state of cell cycle arrest is believed to have originally evolved to limit the proliferation of old or damaged cells. However, it has been recently shown that cellular senescence is a physiological and pathological program contributing to embryogenesis, immune response, and wound repair, as well as aging and age-related diseases. Unlike replicative senescence associated with telomere attrition, premature senescence rapidly occurs in response to various intrinsic and extrinsic insults. Thus, cellular senescence has also been considered suppressive mechanism of tumorigenesis...
Source: BMB Reports - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Authors: Boguszewski CL, Boguszewski MCDS Abstract Several components of the GH axis are involved in tumor progression and GH-induced intracellular signaling has been strongly associated with breast cancer susceptibility in genome-wide association studies. In the general population, high IGF-I levels and low IGFBP-3 levels within the normal range are associated with the development of common malignancies, and components of the GH-IGF signaling system exhibit correlations with clinical, histopathological and therapeutic parameters in cancer patients. Despite promising findings in preclinical studies, anti-cancer the...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research
This article, however, is more of a commentary on high level strategy and the effects of regulation, coupled with a desire to forge ahead rather than hold back in the matter of treating aging, thus I concur with much more of what is said than is usually the case. For decades, one of the most debated questions in gerontology was whether aging is a disease or the norm. At present, excellent reasoning suggests aging should be defined as a disease - indeed, aging has been referred to as "normal disease." Aging is the sum of all age-related diseases and this sum is the best biomarker of aging. Aging and its d...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
At the present time, the main focus of therapeutic development involving senescent cells is the safe, selective destruction of as many such cells as possible. The accumulation of senescent cells is an important cause of aging and age-related pathology, and removing even just a quarter or a half of them - and in only some organs and tissues - has been shown to significantly extend life and improve health in mice. The first human trials are underway and the results will be published over the next year or so. While senescent cells do a good job of accelerating our demise, it is undeniably the case that these cells also...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsctDNA profiles appear to mirror the genomic landscape of metastatic prostate cancer tissue and may cost-efficiently provide somatic information in clinical trials designed to identify predictive biomarkers. However, intronic sequencing of the interrogated tumor suppressors challenges the ubiquitous focus on coding regions and is vital, together with profiling of synchronous white blood cells, to minimize erroneous assignments which in turn may confound results and impede true associations in clinical trials.
Source: Genome Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this study, we analyzed the combination of ionizing radiation (IR) along with microRNA-mediated targeting of genes involved in DSB repair to sensitize human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. MicroRNAs are natural occurring modulators of gene expression and therefore represent an attractive strategy to affect the expression of DSB repair genes. As possible IR-sensitizing targets genes we selected genes of homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway (i.e. RAD51, BRCA2, PRKDC, XRCC5, LIG1). We examined these genes to determine whether they may be real targets of selected miRNAs by fu...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Non-coding RNA profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
ConclusionApplication of cytostatic drugs in combination with adaptogenic plant extracts induced significant changes in transcriptome-wide microarray profiles of neuroglial cells. These changes indicate on potential beneficial effects of adaptogens on FEC induced adverse events in cancer chemotherapy.Graphical abstract
Source: Phytomedicine - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Chenxi Hu, Xiaodong JiangAbstractAbnormalities in the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) pathway and the SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs) pathway are frequently observed in cancer. SUMOylation and deSUMOylation are dynamic processes in cells. SUMOylation of cancer-associated proteins may serve as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis and a target for cancer therapy. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have focused on the role of SENPs in the radiosensitivity of cancer cells. SENPs regulate cancer cell radiosensitivity b...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Abnormalities in the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) pathway and the SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs) pathway are frequently observed in cancer. SUMOylation and deSUMOylation are dynamic processes in cells. SUMOylation of cancer-associated proteins may serve as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis and a target for cancer therapy. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have focused on the role of SENPs in the radiosensitivity of cancer cells. SENPs regulate cancer cell radiosensitivity by mediating DNA damage repair, apoptosis, the cell cycle, and tumor angiogenesis. Here, we review the curren...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research
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