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FDA approves first drug for the 'Jolie gene'

The Food and Drug Administration  on Friday approved AstraZeneca PLC's Lynparza for patients with BRCA gene mutations who have undergone chemotherapy.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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Authors: Oweida AJ, Phan A, Vancourt B, Robin T, Hararah MK, Bhatia S, Milner D, Lennon S, Pike L, Raben D, Haugen BR, Pozdeyev N, Schweppe RE, Karam SD Abstract Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an aggressive and highly lethal disease with poor outcomes and resistance to therapy. Despite multimodality treatment including radiation therapy and chemotherapy, response rates remain below 15% with a median time to progression of less than 3 months. Recent advances in radiotherapy delivery and gene-expression profiling may help guide patient selection for personalized therapy. The purpose of this study was to characterize th...
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The present review elucidates the effect of IR on various oncogenic RTKs and their mechanisms, downstream signaling, intracellular translocations, their role in the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage and post-irradiation survival. Based on the knowledge derived from RTK biology and the analysis of relevant clinical trials, this review attempts to identify radiobiological considerations, which could be implemented in future trials, combining radiotherapy with RTK-antagonist. Additionally, we identify the radiosensitizing potential of recently-developed RTK-targeted nanoformulations. This review would probabl...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Decaudin D, El Botty R, Diallo B, Massonnet G, Fleury J, Naguez A, Raymondie C, Davies E, Smith A, Wilson J, Howes C, Smith PD, Cassoux N, Piperno-Neumann S, Roman-Roman S, Némati F Abstract The prognosis of metastatic uveal melanoma (UM) is among the worst of all human cancers. The identification of near-ubiquitous GNAQ/GNA11 mutations and the activation of MAPK signaling in UM have raised hopes of more effective, targeted therapies, based on MEK inhibition, for example. We evaluated the potential of drug combinations to increase the efficacy of the MEK inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886),...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
We present a girl with severe multisystem LCH who responded only to vemurafenib. After 8 months of treatment, vemurafenib was tapered and replaced by prednisone and vinblastine, a strategy which has not been described to date. Despite chemotherapy, early relapse occurred, but remission was achieved by re-institution of vemurafenib. Further investigation needs to address the optimal duration of vemurafenib therapy in LCH and whether and which chemotherapeutic regimen may prevent disease relapse after cessation of vemurafenib. PMID: 29774135 [PubMed]
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our case demonstrates that histopathological defined diagnosis may significantly inform therapeutic decision-making in irresectable cholangiocarcinoma even in regard to conventional systemic therapy. In case of an undifferentiated carcinoma poly-chemotherapy may provide significant success. PMID: 29774134 [PubMed]
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Vengoji R, Macha MA, Batra SK, Shonka NA Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive malignant tumors with an overall dismal survival averaging one year despite multimodality therapeutic interventions including surgery, radiotherapy and concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Few drugs are FDA approved for GBM, and the addition of temozolomide (TMZ) to standard therapy increases the median survival by only 2.5 months. Targeted therapy appeared promising in in vitro monolayer cultures, but disappointed in preclinical and clinical trials, partly due to the poor penetration of drugs through the b...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Aqbi HF, Tyutyunyk-Massey L, Keim RC, Butler SE, Thekkudan T, Joshi S, Smith TM, Bandyopadhyay D, Idowu MO, Bear HD, Payne KK, Gewirtz DA, Manjili MH Abstract Breast cancer patients who initially respond to cancer therapies often succumb to distant recurrence of the disease. It is not clear why people with the same type of breast cancer respond to treatments differently; some escape from dormancy and relapse earlier than others. In addition, some tumor clones respond to immunotherapy while others do not. We investigated how autophagy plays a role in accelerating or delaying recurrence of neu-overexpressing...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Miyoshi H, Maekawa H, Kakizaki F, Yamaura T, Kawada K, Sakai Y, Taketo MM Abstract Recent advances allowed culturing and examination of patient-derived colorectal cancer (PD-CRC) cells as organoids or spheroids. To be applied to practical personalized medicine, however, current methods still need to be strengthened for higher efficiency. Here we report an improved method to propagate PD-CRC tumor initiating cells (TICs) in spheroid culture. We established> 100 cancer spheroid lines derived from independent colorectal cancer patients employing a serum-containing medium with additional inhibitors, Y27632 ...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Sebagh M, Bosselut N, Santos AD, Allard MA, Ruiz A, Saffroy R, Cherqui D, Vibert E, Castaing D, Adam R, Cunha AS, Lemoine A Abstract Effective individualized treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) requires tumor genotyping, usually based on the analysis of one single sample per patient. Therapy failure may partially be explained by sampling errors and/or intratumoral genetic heterogeneity. We aimed to demonstrate intratumoral genetic heterogeneity in CLM and enable pathologists to select tumor tissue for genotyping. All the tumors of 86 patients who underwent liver resection for a sin...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Bhatti M, Ippolito T, Mavis C, Gu J, Cairo MS, Lim MS, Hernandez-Ilizaliturri F, Barth MJ Abstract Though outcomes for pediatric Burkitt lymphoma (BL) have improved significantly in recent decades with intensive multi-agent chemotherapy and the addition of rituximab, chemotherapy resistance remains a significant impediment to cure following relapse. Activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway has been implicated in Burkitt lymphomagenesis and increased PI3K/AKT activation has been associated with worse outcomes in adults with aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT pathway have be...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
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