Diffusion Tensor Imaging Investigation of Uncinate Fasciculus Anatomy in Healthy Controls: Description of a Subgenual Stem
The uncinate fasciculus is the largest white matter association tract connecting the prefrontal cortex and the anteromedial temporal lobe. The traditional anatomical description outlines a temporal stem that hooks around the posterior insula, a subinsular body, and 2 prefrontal stems extending to the lateral orbital gyri and the frontopolar cortex. Recent imaging studies of the white matter tracts deep to the subgenual cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 25: BA25) suggest the presence of white matter fibers extending from BA25 to the amygdala, via a route that would run in close proximity to the uncinate fasciculus, that are of functional importance in mood disorders. We hypothesized that these fibers represent a third, medial prefrontal stem of the uncinate fasciculus. Using diffusion tensor imaging in 74 healthy volunteer humans, we seeded the uncinate fasciculus using 2 regions of interest centered over the temporal stem and the caudal body of the uncinate fasciculus in the coronal plane at the level of the anterior commissure. A medial prefrontal stem extending to the subgenual cingulate gyrus was demonstrated in 65/74 left and 70/74 right cerebral hemispheres, and had a mean fractional anisotropy value of 0.43 (95% CI 0.40 –0.47). The medial subgenual stem fibers were inseparable from the caudal body and temporal stem of the main uncinate fasciculus and followed the same hook-shaped morphology. A probable medial subgenual prefrontal stem of the uncinate fasciculus was d...
Peng Li, Rongmei Wang, Hongchao Jiao, Xiaojuan Wang, Jingpeng Zhao, Hai Lin
Chun-Chieh Huang, Raghuvaran Narayanan, Noah Warshawsky, Sriram Ravindran
Org. Biomol. Chem., 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C8OB00979A, CommunicationShuhei Kusano, Sae Konishi, Yuji Yamada, Osamu Hayashida Three series of water-soluble anthracene-appended benzoxaboroles 1a-c were developed; their binding affinity toward cis-1,2-diols was explored by conventional fluorescence titrations to demonstrate the role of benzoxaborole as a general recognition... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Org. Biomol. Chem., 2018, Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/C8OB01015C, CommunicationClaire L. Jarvis, Neyra M. Jemal, Spencer Knapp, Daniel Seidel A new preparation of [small delta]-lactams is reported. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Org. Biomol. Chem., 2018, Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/C8OB00942B, PaperXiangqing Chang, Xiongfei Zhang, Zhiwei Chen The atom-economical characteristics, mild conditions, simple operation and broad substrate scope demonstrated the synthetic value of this protocol. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
DISCUSSION: Current WHO guidelines support the use of fluoroquinolones (first-line), β-lactams (second-line) and cephalosporins (second-line) which accords with currently available evidence and other international guidelines, and there is no strong evidence for changing this guidance. Azithromycin is appropriate as a second-line therapy in regions where the rate of non-susceptibility of ciprofloxacin is known to be high, and research suggests that, from a cardiac point of view, azithromycin is safer than other macrolide antibiotics. Cefixime is also a reasonable alternative, although its use must be weighed against th...
Conclusion Further pragmatic trials are required to optimise management of hospitalised children with severe and very severe pneumonia. PMID: 29790844 [PubMed - in process]
Authors: Ashorn P PMID: 29790843 [PubMed - in process]
Conclusions Current WHO guidelines supporting the use of gentamicin and penicillin for hospital-based patients or gentamicin (IM) and amoxicillin (oral) when referral to a hospital is not possible are in accordance with currently available evidence and other international guidelines, and there is no strong evidence to change this. The benefit of a cephalosporin alone or in combination as a second-line therapy in regions with known high rates of non-susceptibility is not well established. Further research into hospital-acquired sepsis in neonates and children is required. PMID: 29790842 [PubMed - in process]
Conclusions In view of the changing non-susceptibility rates worldwide, empirical therapy for cholera infection in paediatric patients should be changed to single-dose azithromycin (20 mg/kg), a safe and effective medication with ease of administration. Erythromycin (12.5 mg/kg four times daily for 3 days) exhibits similar bacteriological and clinical success and should be listed as a second-line therapy. Fluid resuscitation remains the cornerstone of management of paediatric cholera infection, and prevention of infection by promoting access to clean water and sanitation is paramount. PMID: 29790841 [PubMed - in process]