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Diffusion Tensor Imaging Investigation of Uncinate Fasciculus Anatomy in Healthy Controls: Description of a Subgenual Stem

The uncinate fasciculus is the largest white matter association tract connecting the prefrontal cortex and the anteromedial temporal lobe. The traditional anatomical description outlines a temporal stem that hooks around the posterior insula, a subinsular body, and 2 prefrontal stems extending to the lateral orbital gyri and the frontopolar cortex. Recent imaging studies of the white matter tracts deep to the subgenual cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 25: BA25) suggest the presence of white matter fibers extending from BA25 to the amygdala, via a route that would run in close proximity to the uncinate fasciculus, that are of functional importance in mood disorders. We hypothesized that these fibers represent a third, medial prefrontal stem of the uncinate fasciculus. Using diffusion tensor imaging in 74 healthy volunteer humans, we seeded the uncinate fasciculus using 2 regions of interest centered over the temporal stem and the caudal body of the uncinate fasciculus in the coronal plane at the level of the anterior commissure. A medial prefrontal stem extending to the subgenual cingulate gyrus was demonstrated in 65/74 left and 70/74 right cerebral hemispheres, and had a mean fractional anisotropy value of 0.43 (95% CI 0.40 –0.47). The medial subgenual stem fibers were inseparable from the caudal body and temporal stem of the main uncinate fasciculus and followed the same hook-shaped morphology. A probable medial subgenual prefrontal stem of the uncinate fasciculus was d...
Source: Neuropsychobiology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

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Source: Psychopathology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
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Source: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
PMID: 29461110 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Adv Dent Res - Category: Dentistry Authors: Tags: Adv Dent Res Source Type: research
Conclusions. Adv Dent Res. 2018 Mar;29(2):183-185 Authors: Zohoori FV PMID: 29461109 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Adv Dent Res - Category: Dentistry Authors: Tags: Adv Dent Res Source Type: research
Abstract Policy on fluoride intake involves balancing caries against dental fluorosis in populations. The origin of this balance lies with Dean's research on fluoride concentration in water supplies, caries, and fluorosis. Dean identified cut points in the Index of Dental Fluorosis of 0.4 and 0.6 as critical. These equate to 1.3 and 1.6 mg fluoride (F)/L. However, 1.0 mg F/L, initially called a permissible level, was adopted for fluoridation programs. McClure, in 1943, derived an "optimum" fluoride intake based on this permissible concentration. It was not until 1944 that Dean referred to this concentrat...
Source: Adv Dent Res - Category: Dentistry Authors: Tags: Adv Dent Res Source Type: research
PMID: 29461107 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Adv Dent Res - Category: Dentistry Authors: Tags: Adv Dent Res Source Type: research
;re I Abstract The purpose of this report is to examine critically the appropriateness of the current guidance for fluoride intake in the population (0.05-0.07 mg F/kg bodyweight/d), consider whether changes to the current guidance are desirable, and suggest further research that will strengthen the evidence base for future decisions on guidance/advice in this area. The benefits and the risks of using fluoride particularly concern preschool children because it is at this age that excessive fluoride intake may result in dental fluorosis. Data from mostly cross-sectional studies show a wide variation in exposure and...
Source: Adv Dent Res - Category: Dentistry Authors: Tags: Adv Dent Res Source Type: research
PMID: 29461105 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Adv Dent Res - Category: Dentistry Authors: Tags: Adv Dent Res Source Type: research
Abstract Since the classical epidemiological studies by Dean, it has been known that there should be an optimum level of exposure to fluoride that would be able to provide the maximum protection against caries, with minimum dental fluorosis. The "optimal" daily intake of fluoride for children (0.05-0.07 mg per kilogram bodyweight) that is still accepted worldwide was empirically determined. In the present review, we discuss the appropriateness of the current guidance for fluoride intake, in light of the windows of susceptibility to caries and fluorosis, the modern trends of fluoride intake from multiple ...
Source: Adv Dent Res - Category: Dentistry Authors: Tags: Adv Dent Res Source Type: research
Authors: Heichel J, Luci E, Struck HG, Siebolts U, Wickenhauser C, Plontke S, Viestenz A, Götze G PMID: 29460016 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: HNO - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research
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