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The Dynamic Actin Cytoskeleton in Smooth Muscle.

The Dynamic Actin Cytoskeleton in Smooth Muscle. Adv Pharmacol. 2018;81:1-38 Authors: Tang DD Abstract Smooth muscle contraction requires both myosin activation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. Actin cytoskeletal reorganization facilitates smooth muscle contraction by promoting force transmission between the contractile unit and the extracellular matrix (ECM), and by enhancing intercellular mechanical transduction. Myosin may be viewed to serve as an "engine" for smooth muscle contraction whereas the actin cytoskeleton may function as a "transmission system" in smooth muscle. The actin cytoskeleton in smooth muscle also undergoes restructuring upon activation with growth factors or the ECM, which controls smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Abnormal smooth muscle contraction, cell proliferation, and motility contribute to the development of vascular and pulmonary diseases. A number of actin-regulatory proteins including protein kinases have been discovered to orchestrate actin dynamics in smooth muscle. In particular, Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) is an important molecule that controls actin dynamics, contraction, growth, and motility in smooth muscle. Moreover, c-Abl coordinates the regulation of blood pressure and contributes to the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness and vascular/airway remodeling in vivo. Thus, c-Abl may be a novel pharmacological target for the development of new therapy to treat smooth mus...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

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h J Abstract Introduction: Our aim was to investigate changes in smoking prevalence, smoking cessation support and factors associated with successful smoking cessation in patients with asthma and COPD. Methods: Questionnaires about available smoking cessation resources were completed by 54 primary health-care centers and 14 hospitals in central Sweden in 2005 and 2012. Patient data were collected using record reviews and patients questionnaires for two cohorts of randomly selected asthma and COPD patients in 2005 (n = 2306; with a follow up in 2012), and in 2014/2015 (n = 2620). Smoking prevale...
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Eur Clin Respir J Source Type: research
This article examines the effects of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on households ’ out-of-pocket health expenditures in Sri Lanka. We explore the disease specific impacts on out-of-pocket health care expenses from chronic NCDs such as heart diseases, hypertension, cancer, diabetics and asthma. We use nationwide cross-sectional household income and expenditure survey 2012/2013 data compiled by the department of census and statistics of Sri Lanka. Employing propensity score matching method to account for selectivity bias, we find that chronic NCD affected households appear to spend significantly higher out-o...
Source: International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
ConclusionWe found an excess incidence of recurring pneumonia in patients with bipolar disorder, and this risk was associated with pre‐existing medical conditions but not psychotropic agents. Physicians should carefully consider the comorbid medical conditions of patients with bipolar disorder that could lead to recurrent pneumonia.
Source: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research
With the strongly held belief that access to health care should be available to everyone — not just the insured — nearly 200 volunteers from UCLA joined an effort to provide free services to more than 2,000 people at a three-day Care Harbor community clinic.“Los Angeles is still one of the leading areas of people without insurance or access to care and it’s a problem for the community,” said Dr. Patrick Dowling, professor and chair of the  UCLA Department of Family Medicine, who led the UCLA volunteer contingent at Care Harbor ’s seventh health care mega clinic. “I’...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Purpose of review Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with a prevalence that has tripled in the last two decades. Worldwide, more than 1.5 billion adults are overweight and more than 500 million obese. Obesity has been suggested to be a risk factor for the development of more difficult-to-control asthma. Although the mechanisms underlying the asthma–obesity relationship are not fully understood, several possible explanations have been put forward. These will be reviewed in this manuscript as well as the implications for the treatment of overweight and obese asthma patients. Recent findings Insulin resistance is a po...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: ASTHMA: Edited by Nicola A. Hanania and Zuzana Diamant Source Type: research
Abstract The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure. RAS has also been implicated in the regulation of inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis in pulmonary diseases such as asthma, acute lung injury (ALI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Current therapeutics suffer from some drawbacks like steroid resistance, limited efficacies and side effects. Novel intervention is definitely needed to offer optimal therapeutic strategy and clinical outcome. This review com...
Source: Current Opinion in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Pharmacol Source Type: research
This report illustrates both an intravenous NSAID causing severe AERD, and how a chest CT may be instrumental for the diagnosis of life-threatening asthma. PMID: 29255644 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research
There is some evidence that chikungunya virus (CHIKV) disease severity is related to particular comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, cardiac diseases, and/or asthma.No study has examined the frequency of chronic comorbidities in severe CHIKV cases.The present study is the first to systematically describe the prevalence of chronic comorbidities in CHIKV and evaluate their possible contributions to disease severity.Hypertension, diabetes and cardiac diseases were the most frequent chronic comorbidities in CHIKV patients where they present in about 30%, 20% and 15% of the cases, respectively.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
(Natural News) Artificial light has both its risks and benefits, but a new study shows that it may be the solution to minimally invasive, drug-free treatments. Researchers are currently developing new ways using infrared neuromodulation to treat cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heart beat), hypertension (high blood pressure), asthma, sleep apnea (suspension of breathing during sleep), diarrhea, and...
Source: NaturalNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
As Vikash Singh looks forward to 2018 he is also looking forward to witnessing his education in action. Specifically how his background in medical research, artificial intelligence and machine learning — along with a $5,000UCLA Global Citizens Fellowship award and some innovative thinking — may potentially help save lives in Cameroon.Doctors at the HSPC Polyclinic in Kumba, a city located in the country ’s southwest region, will soon begin uploading patient information to a software application designed by Singh and a team of student programmers through Project DataReach, a company Singh launched in 2015 ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
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