The Dynamic Actin Cytoskeleton in Smooth Muscle.

The Dynamic Actin Cytoskeleton in Smooth Muscle. Adv Pharmacol. 2018;81:1-38 Authors: Tang DD Abstract Smooth muscle contraction requires both myosin activation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. Actin cytoskeletal reorganization facilitates smooth muscle contraction by promoting force transmission between the contractile unit and the extracellular matrix (ECM), and by enhancing intercellular mechanical transduction. Myosin may be viewed to serve as an "engine" for smooth muscle contraction whereas the actin cytoskeleton may function as a "transmission system" in smooth muscle. The actin cytoskeleton in smooth muscle also undergoes restructuring upon activation with growth factors or the ECM, which controls smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Abnormal smooth muscle contraction, cell proliferation, and motility contribute to the development of vascular and pulmonary diseases. A number of actin-regulatory proteins including protein kinases have been discovered to orchestrate actin dynamics in smooth muscle. In particular, Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) is an important molecule that controls actin dynamics, contraction, growth, and motility in smooth muscle. Moreover, c-Abl coordinates the regulation of blood pressure and contributes to the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness and vascular/airway remodeling in vivo. Thus, c-Abl may be a novel pharmacological target for the development of new therapy to treat smooth mus...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

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Merck and Bayer have been granted FDA Breakthrough Device Designation for the collaborative Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) Artificial Intelligence Pattern Recognition software. CTEPH can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms. CTEPH affects five people per million annually worldwide. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography and a ventilation/perfusion scan can be used to determine if thromboembolic occlusion is causing pulmonary hypertension in patients. Get the full story on our sister site, Medical Design &Outsourc...
Source: Mass Device - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Food & Drug Administration (FDA) Bayer Merck Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: The use of OCS in the management of asthma is associated with a higher risk of complications. This risk is higher as the OCS dose increases. PMID: 30513226 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Asthma - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Asthma Source Type: research
Lengthy time to conception and fertility treatment may affect child ’s asthma risk Related items fromOnMedica Target rates for caesareans may be too low Most CCGs missing smoking target for pregnant women Women using short-acting asthma relievers can take 20% longer to conceive More help to quit smoking in pregnancy SSRIs raise risk of rare neonatal hypertension
Source: OnMedica Latest News - Category: UK Health Source Type: news
Bayer announced in a release that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted a breakthrough device designation for an AI pattern recognition software that it is jointly developing with Merck. The software is designed for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH), a rare form of pulmonary hypertension that is often difficult to diagnose because symptoms often mimic those of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Working together, Bayer and Merck have…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care News Headlines - Category: Health Management Authors: Source Type: news
zer The aim of this study was to assess the association between lifetime spousal violence victimization, spousal violence perpetration, and physical health outcomes and behaviours among women in India. In the 2015–2016 National Family Health Survey, a sample of ever-married women (15–49 years) (N = 66,013) were interviewed about spousal violence. Results indicate that 29.9% of women reported lifetime spousal physical violence victimization and 7.1% lifetime spousal sexual violence victimization (31.1% physical and/or sexual violence victimization), and 3.5% lifetime spousal physical violence perpetr...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusion: Interventions targeted at the points of intersection among the health conditions and work-environment factors could be a cost-effective way to improve employees’ overall well-being at work, and thus reduce presenteeism.
Source: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine - Category: Occupational Health Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Although the diabetes-lung association is epidemiologically and clinically well-established, especially in asthma, the underlying mechanism and pathophysiology are not been fully understood. Several mechanisms have been suggested, mainly associated with the pro-inflammatory and proliferative properties of diabetes, but also in relation to micro- and macrovascular effects of diabetes on the pulmonary vasculature. Also, hypoglycemic drugs may influence lung diseases in different ways. For example, metformin was considered a potential therapeutic agent in lung diseases, while insulin was shown to exacerbate lung ...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE: Handgrip strength provides a clinically validated marker of overall health and mortality risk. There are however, no multi-national population-based studies investigating the associations between handgrip strength, chronic physical conditions, and physical multimorbidity (i.e., ≥2 chronic conditions). We aimed to assess these associations among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults using nationally representative data from six in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based data on individuals aged ≥50 years from the World Health Organ...
Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Eur J Intern Med Source Type: research
Authors: Eriksson B, Backman H, Ekerljung L, Axelsson M, Lindberg A, Rönmark E, Lundbäck B Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are the most common comorbidities in COPD, due to common risk factors such as smoking. The prevalence of current smokers in Sweden has decreased over four decades to around 10%. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, distribution and associations of cardiovascular comorbidities in COPD by disease severity in two large areas of Sweden, both with low-smoking prevalence. Data from clinical examinations in 2009-2012, including spirometry and structured interview,...
Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: COPD Source Type: research
Abstract Regulated cell death is a major mechanism to eliminate damaged, infected, or superfluous cells. Previously, apoptosis was thought to be the only regulated cell death mechanism; however, new modalities of caspase-independent regulated cell death have been identified, including necroptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagic cell death. As an understanding of the cellular mechanisms that mediate regulated cell death continues to grow, there is increasing evidence that these pathways are implicated in the pathogenesis of many pulmonary disorders. This review summarizes our understanding of regulated cell death as it...
Source: Annual Review of Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Annu Rev Physiol Source Type: research
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