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Chidamide shows synergistic cytotoxicity with cytarabine via inducing G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in myelodysplastic syndromes.

In this study, the combination of chidamide (50 nM) with cytarabine (50 nM) showed synergistic inhibition on cell growth.The mean combination index values were 0.068, 0.158, and 0.226 in SKM-1, MUTZ-1, and KG-1 MDS cell lines, respectively. The combination increased the acetylation levels of histone H3 and decreased HDAC activity in MDS cells.A low concentration (25 and 50 nM) of chidamide combined with low-dose cytarabine (50 nM) inhibited cell proliferation and arrested the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phasevia down-regulating CDK2 and up-regulating p21. Furthermore, the combined treatment induced cell apoptosis via down-regulating Bcl-2 and up-regulating cleaved caspase-3 protein. These results demonstrate the potential utility of combining chidamide and cytarabine in the treatment of MDS. PMID: 29312515 [PubMed]
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research

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Authors: Nenova I, Grudeva-Popova J Abstract The growing number of successfully cured cancer patients has created a new field in oncogenesis. The life expectancy of such patients has increased, however this favorable event may create enough time for epigenetic events to occur which can cause a new carcinognic event, i.e. a secondary malignancy. The terms in use are second primary malignancies as well as therapy-related neoplasms in case the treatment of the first neoplasm is a direct cause. Second primary malignancies can be hematological neoplasms or solid tumors, with solid tumors having higher frequency. Hematol...
Source: Journal of B.U.ON. - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J BUON Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017 Source:Journal of Geriatric Oncology Author(s): Marlise R. Luskin, Gregory A. Abel The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a varied group of hematologic neoplasms that lead to bone marrow failure, and also carry a risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Patients with MDS suffer significant impairments to both their quality of life and survival. Age is the dominant risk factor for the development of MDS, with a median age at diagnosis over 70years. Consequently, patients with MDS frequently have concurrent comorbidities and/or frailty which may be coincident or rel...
Source: Journal of Geriatric Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we analyzed the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular features of five new patients with the t(12;22)/MN1-EVT6 who presented with acute myeloid leukemia or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. We subsequently reviewed the literature and identified seven additional cases reported with t(12;22)/MN1-EVT6. Our data suggest that neoplasms carrying the t(12;22)/MN1-ETV6, although rare, can commonly present as myeloid neoplasms at the initial diagnosis, including acute myeloid leukemia (n = 8), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 2), and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (n =&thin...
Source: Annals of Hematology - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated chromosomal abnormalities of MDS among survivors. The frequency of abnormal karyotypes was significantly higher, with more very poor risk karyotypes, according to the revised International Prognostic Scoring System, among those exposed close to the hypocentre compared with unexposed cases. However, abnormal karyotype frequency did not reflect the prognosis of exposed cases with respect to distance from the hypocentre. In addition, there was no difference in prognosis between exposed and unexposed cases. Among proximally exposed cases (
Source: British Journal of Haematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONSAdjuvant chemotherapy is associated with a small but significant increase in the risk of AML and MDS, especially with regimens that include A. Longer follow‐up is needed to confirm that risk is not increased with the recently adopted TC regimen. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Source: Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Authors: Lindsley RC Abstract Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clinically heterogeneous disease characterized by functional impairment of hematopoiesis and abnormal bone marrow morphology. The type and severity of hematopoietic dysfunction in MDS are highly variable, and the kinetics of disease progression are difficult to predict. Genomic studies have shown that MDS is typically driven by a multistep somatic genetic process affecting a core set of genes. By definition, recurrent MDS driver mutations all drive clonal dominance, although they can have stereotyped positions in the clonal hierarchy or patterns of c...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research
Authors: McReynolds LJ, Savage SA Abstract The clinical manifestations of inherited susceptibility to leukemia encompass a wide phenotypic range, including patients with certain congenital anomalies or early-onset myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and some with no obvious medical problems until they develop leukemia. Leukemia susceptibility syndromes occur as a result of autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked recessive inheritance, or de novo occurrence, of germline pathogenic variants in DNA repair, ribosome biogenesis, telomere biology, hematopoietic transcription factors, tumor suppressors, and other ...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research
Conclusion: Low‐intensity chemotherapy, i.e. HMAs or LDAC, in combination with VEN is a viable salvage option, even in multiply relapsed/refractory patients with AML, MDS, and BPDCN. Notable responses were identified in patients with diploid/intermediate cytogenetics, RUNX1 and/or IDH1/2 mutations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: American Journal of Hematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
AbstractImmunocompromised patients are at high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFI), in particular those with haematological malignancies undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT). Despite the development of new treatment options in the past decades, IFI remains a concern due to substantial morbidity and mortality in these patient populations. In addition, the increasing use of new immune modulating drugs in cancer therapy has opened an entirely new spectrum of at risk periods. ...
Source: Annals of Hematology - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
Abstract Disease overviewThe myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a very heterogeneous group of myeloid disorders characterized by peripheral blood cytopenias and increased risk of transformation to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). MDS occurs more frequently in older males and in individuals with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy. DiagnosisDiagnosis of MDS is based on morphological evidence of dysplasia upon visual examination of a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. Information obtained from additional studies such as karyotype, flow cytometry or molecular genetics is usually complementary and may help refine diagnosis. Ri...
Source: American Journal of Hematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: ANNUAL CLINICAL UPDATES IN HEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES Source Type: research
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