Amatoxin-Containing Mushroom Poisonings: Species, Toxidromes, Treatments, and Outcomes

Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine Author(s): James H. Diaz Amatoxins are produced primarily by 3 species of mushrooms: Amanita, Lepiota, and Galerina. Because amatoxin poisonings are increasing, the objective of this review was to identify all amatoxin-containing mushroom species, present a toxidromic approach to earlier diagnoses, and compare the efficacies and outcomes of therapies. To meet these objectives, Internet search engines were queried with keywords to select peer-reviewed scientific articles on amatoxin-containing mushroom poisoning and management. Descriptive epidemiological analyses have documented that most mushroom poisonings are caused by unknown mushrooms, and most fatal mushroom poisonings are caused by amatoxin-containing mushrooms. Amanita species cause more fatal mushroom poisonings than other amatoxin-containing species, such as Galerina and Lepiota. Amanita phalloides is responsible for most fatalities, followed by Amanita virosa and Amanita verna. The most frequently reported fatal Lepiota ingestions are due to Lepiota brunneoincarnata, and the most frequently reported fatal Galerina species ingestions are due to Galerina marginata. With the exception of liver transplantation, the current treatment strategies for amatoxin poisoning are all supportive and have not been subjected to rigorous efficacy testing in randomized controlled trials. All patients with symptoms of late-appearing gastr...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Related Links:

In conclusion, our data show how oncogenic and tumor-suppressive drivers of cellular senescence act to regulate surveillance processes that can be circumvented to enable SnCs to elude immune recognition but can be reversed by cell surface-targeted interventions to purge the SnCs that persist in vitro and in patients. Since eliminating SnCs can prevent tumor progression, delay the onset of degenerative diseases, and restore fitness; since NKG2D-Ls are not widely expressed in healthy human tissues and NKG2D-L shedding is an evasion mechanism also employed by tumor cells; and since increasing numbers of B cells express NKG2D ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
We examined 9293 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of total cholesterol, free- and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and particle concentration. Fourteen subclasses of decreasing size and their lipid constituents were analysed: six subclasses were very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), one intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), three low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and four subclasses were high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Remnant lipoproteins were VLDL and IDL combined. Mean nonfasting cholesterol concentration was 72‚...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: Although anecdotal reports utilizing V-B12 for vasoplegia are available, no higher-level evidence exists. Future work is necessary to further understand the dosing, timing, adverse events, and biochemical mechanisms of V-B12 compared with other therapies such as methylene blue. PMID: 31346957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Can J Anaesth Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The preventable causes of Fulminant Acute Hepatitis include hepatitis viruses - primarily the hepatitis A virus - and poisoning. Active vaccination, basic sanitation, and public awareness can reduce the number of patients and, consequently, the costs of liver transplantation due to these causes.RESUMO OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta revis ão foi investigar a epidemiologia da hepatite aguda fulminante na América Latina e Caribe e identificar possíveis ações objetivando melhor compreensão e melhora do suporte desses pacientes. MÉTODOS: Pesquisou-se o tema hepatite aguda...
Source: Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The preventable causes of Fulminant Acute Hepatitis include hepatitis viruses - primarily the hepatitis A virus - and poisoning. Active vaccination, basic sanitation, and public awareness can reduce the number of patients and, consequently, the costs of liver transplantation due to these causes.RESUMO OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta revis ão foi investigar a epidemiologia da hepatite aguda fulminante na América Latina e Caribe e identificar possíveis ações objetivando melhor compreensão e melhora do suporte desses pacientes. MÉTODOS: Pesquisou-se o tema hepatite aguda...
Source: Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology, Volume 9, Issue 3Author(s): Prasad Yerra, Anand Vijai, P. Senthilnathan, S. Srivatsan Gurumurthy, Mohammed Juned Khan, Arvinder Soin, C. Palanivelu
Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
A 45-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with nausea and vomiting. Her symptoms had started seven days earlier and steadily worsened. She reported generalized abdominal pain and distention and that her eyes appeared yellow.The patient had no past medical history, took no medications, and said she did not drink or use drugs. Her history showed that she had been drinking an herbal preparation every day for the past five months to ameliorate her heavy menstrual periods.The patient had mild right upper quadrant tenderness but no distention, rebound, or guarding. Her lungs were clear, and her heart rate and rhy...
Source: The Tox Cave - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: Proper case selection strategies can be implemented to expand the donor pool, including use of poisoned donors. Hence, poisoning is not a contra-indication for a referral, which could lead to decreased mortality for patients requiring a liver transplant. PMID: 31104626 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Exp Clin Transplant Source Type: research
Conclusion and Perspectives Collectively, previous studies showed that numerous types of TCMs protect against AKI via different mechanisms of action, including inhibiting inflammation, cell apoptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, and restraining oxidative stress etc. These data support the potential application of these TCMs as novel therapeutic agents in treating patients with AKI. Although some TCMs have entered preclinical trials, it is essential to initiate pre-clinical pharmacologic and toxicologic trials and clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TCMs usage. Moreover, considering that some TCMs are dele...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions Without prompt intervention, poisoning with fireworks carries high morbidity and mortality in children. It can cause pulmonary hemorrhage, in addition to other organ damage, including liver and kidney. Hyperphosphatemia is common, as it was seen in all of the study patients.
Source: Pediatric Emergency Care - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
More News: Environmental Health | Epidemiology | Gastroenterology | Internet | Liver | Liver Transplant | Mushrooms | Poisoning | Toxicology | Transplants | Urology & Nephrology