Infections, genetic and environmental factors in pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases

Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018 Source:Microbial Pathogenesis Author(s): Sanjeev Kumar Shukla, Govind Singh, Shahzad Ahmad, Prabhat Pant In Autoimmune disease a combination of infection, genetic and environmental factors causes an autoimmune response to the thyroid gland (characterized by lymphocytic infiltrations), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) and different thyroid antigens. Graves' and Hashimoto disease are autoimmune disorders with genetic predisposition. CD40 that stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes is an essential immunomodulatory component for follicular cells in the thyroid and the cell that present the antigen. CD40, PTPN22 and thyroid-specific genes are immunomodulating genes for the TSH receptor and thyroglobulin. CD40 used to be associated with Graves's disease as positional candidate on the basis of Graves' disease linkage study connecting with 20q11 genome chromosomal region. The PTPN22 gene gives rise to a substantial risk of specific autoimmune phenotypes and frequent disease mechanisms. Infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AITD including Coxsackie virus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori and retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40). Infectious hepatitis C agents are the strongest proof supporting an affiliation with AITD. The essential environmental triggers of AITD are iodine, drugs, infection, smoking and perhaps stress. Autoimmune disease provide...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2020, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9CP05601G, PaperCarolina Moreno, Maria Teresa Teresa Baeza-Romero, Mikel Sanz, Oscar Galvez, Vicente L ópez-Arza Moreno, James C Ianni, Eva María Espildora García The aqueous-phase and surface reactions of ozone (O3) with iodide (I-) in/on seawater are known to be a strong atmospheric source of iodine. In addition, ozone also reacts with I-... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsTransplanting kidneys from HCV-viremic donors into HCV-uninfected recipients increased quality-adjusted life expectancy and reduced costs compared with a strategy of transplanting kidneys from HCV-unexposed donors.
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
[International Network on Hepatitis in Substance Users] INHSU Africa, a historic meeting of researchers, policy makers, politicians and advocates to plan for the elimination of viral hepatitis for people who use drugs has commenced today with a planning session for advocates across the African region.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2020Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Bo Li, Xiaoqian Lan, Li Wang, Jiani Zhao, Jingli Ding, Hao Ding, Jun Lei, Yiping Wei, Wenxiong ZhangAbstractBackgroundHelicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the important risk factors of gastric related diseases and antibiotic therapy has become an effective treatment. At present, proton-pump inhibitor and amoxicillin-based triple therapy, including clarithromycin (PAC) and metronidazole (PAM), are two commonly used first-line therapies for H. pylori infection, which has a high incidence and possibly poor prognosis worl...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, Fe(II)-activated persulfate oxidation (Fe2+/PS) was employed to degrade iodoform, the effects of initial reactants concentration, reaction parameters, kinetics model were investigated, and the underlying mechanisms of CHI3 degradation in Fe2+/PS oxidation process was unveiled. The results showed that the mole ratio Fe2+/PS of 1:5, initial PS concentration of 15 μmmol/L, and pH of 3.0 were identified as the optimum operating parameters. In addition, a relatively higher temperature could enhance CHI3 removal and deiodination. The kinetic model has two different reaction steps: a fast one during the first te...
Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Discussion Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a problem of the neuromuscular junction which causes muscle weakness. It can occur in all ages and have a range of symptoms from mild localized disease to mortality-threatening respiratory failure. MG occurs in 1.7-30 cases/million, with a prevalence of 77.7 cases/million. Pediatric patients comprise 10-15% of all patients with MG. In various Asian populations, the juvenile MG can be up to 50% of all of the MG cases. Fluctuations in muscle weakness is a hallmark of the disease. As a reminder, “[i]n normal synaptic transmission in the neuromuscular junction, the axon is depolarize...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Authors: Chelvanambi M, Weinstein AM, Storkus WJ Abstract The ability of the immune system to prevent or control the growth of tumor cells is critically dependent on inflammatory processes that lead to the activation, expansion, and recruitment of antitumor effector cells into the tumor microenvironment (TME). These processes are orchestrated by soluble cytokines produced in tissues that alarm local immune surveillance cells (such as dendritic cells, DCs) to mobilize protective antitumor immune populations (B cells, T cells). The interleukin (IL)-36 family of pro-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
AbstractThis guideline aims to describe the complement system and the functions of the constituent pathways, with  particular focus on primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) and their diagnosis and management. The complement system is a crucial part of the innate immune system, with multiple membrane-bound and soluble components. There are three distinct enzymatic cascade pathways within the complement system, the classical, alternative and lectin pathways, which converge with the cleavage of central C3. Complement deficiencies account for ~5% of PIDs. The clinical consequences of inherited defects in the complement system...
Source: Journal of Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Soares Albuquerque Indiara Penido Tayrine Araujo Santos Ana Paula Dinis Ano Bom Andrea Marques Vieira da Silva Camilla Bayma Fernandes Carlos Eduardo Calzavara Erna Geessien Kroon Olindo Assis Martins-Filho Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho Betânia Paiva Drumond One patient presented hyporexia, asthenia, adynamia, and jaundice two months after acute yellow fever (YF) onset; plus laboratory tests indicating hepatic cytolysis and a rebound of alanine and aspartate transaminases, and total and direct bilirubin levels. Laboratory tests discarded autoimmune hepatitis, inflammatory or metabolic liver ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn HCV GT1- and GT2-infected Japanese patients, treatment with JNJ-4178 was well tolerated and resulted in 100% of patients achieving SVR12.
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
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