The role of adjuvant immunomodulatory agents for treatment of severe influenza

Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): David S. Hui, Nelson Lee, Paul K. Chan, John H. Beigel A severe inflammatory immune response with hypercytokinemia occurs in patients hospitalized with severe influenza, such as avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H7N9), and seasonal A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections. The role of immunomodulatory therapy is unclear as there have been limited published data based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Passive immunotherapy such as convalescent plasma and hyperimmune globulin have some studies demonstrating benefit when administered as an adjunctive therapy for severe influenza. Triple combination of oseltamivir, clarithromycin, and naproxen for severe influenza has one study supporting its use, and confirmatory studies would be of great interest. Likewise, confirmatory studies of sirolimus without concomitant corticosteroid therapy should be explored as a research priority. Other agents with potential immunomodulating effects, including non-immune intravenous immunoglobulin, N-acetylcysteine, acute use of statins, macrolides, pamidronate, nitazoxanide, chloroquine, antiC5a antibody, interferons, human mesenchymal stromal cells, mycophenolic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, mesalazine, herbal medicine, and the role of plasmapheresis and hemoperfusion as rescue therapy have supportive preclinical or observational clinical data, and deserv...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research

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Cancer immune evasion is achieved through multiple layers of immune tolerance mechanisms including immune editing, recruitment of tolerogenic immune cells, and secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines. Recent success with immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer immunotherapy suggests a dysfunctional immune synapse as a pivotal tolerogenic mechanism. Tumor cells express immune synapse proteins to suppress the immune system, which is often modulated by epigenetic mechanisms. When the methylation status of key immune synapse genes was interrogated, we observed disproportionately hypermethylated costimulatory genes and hypometh...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION We identified a population of HCV-specific CD4+ T cells with a follicular T helper cell signature that is maintained after therapy-induced elimination of persistent infection and may constitute an important target population for vaccination efforts to prevent reinfection and immunotherapeutic approaches for persistent viral infections.FUNDING Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the European Union, the Berta-Ottenstein-Programme for Advanced Clinician Scientists, and the ANRS.
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
This study comprehensively summarises the current concepts in the pathogenesis of vitiligo with special focus on the cytokine and signalling pathways, which are the targets for newer drugs. JAK kinase signalling pathways and the cytokines involved are the focus of vitiligo treatment in current research, followed by antioxidant mechanisms and repigmenting mechanisms. Topical immunosuppressants may be an alternative to steroids in localised vitiligo. Newer repigmenting agents like basic fibroblast growth factors, afamelanotide have been included and a special emphasis is laid on the upcoming targeted immunotherapy.Expert opi...
Source: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Emerg Drugs Source Type: research
ConclusionApoA1 was associated with decreased T2DM risk and TG/ApoA1 and apoB/LDL were associated with increased risk of T2DM, only in males. ApoA1 polymorphism, which is associated with lower HDL cholesterol, influenced the predictive effects of HOMA-IR on T2DM incidence, which appeared to be moderated by physical activity, suggesting potential scope for more targeted preventative strategies.
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
(University of Michigan) Fully vaccinating children reduces the risk of hospitalization associated with influenza by 54%, according to a study by researchers at the University of Michigan, the Clalit Research Institute, and Ben-Gurion University in Israel.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Trends in Pharmacological SciencesAuthor(s): Hongxiang Wang, Tao Xu, Qilin Huang, Weilin Jin, Juxiang ChenGlioma is the most common intracranial primary malignancy, with limited treatment options and a poor overall survival (OS). Immunotherapy has been used successfully in various cancers, leading to the development of similar therapies that activate the patient’s immune system to eliminate glioma. In this review, we introduce the diverse immunotherapeutic approaches available for treating glioma, highlighting the successes and challenges resulting from curren...
Source: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsOverconsumption of KRG could induce “Shanghuo”, which has a close relationship with an accelerated TCA cycle and the increased AMPK activity.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsLSW could significantly not only inhibit virus replication and proliferation in vitro, but also ameliorate pneumonia damage in vivo. The antiviral effect was attributed to down-regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines induced by influenza virus via regulating the activity of TLR4/NF-кB signaling pathway.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe comprehensive features and risk factors of cardiac ADRs induced by oral CMMs can be discovered and elucidated through the approaches of bibliometric research, association rules analysis, and data mining technology, which raise the profile and awareness of the rational applications of CMMs and pharmacovigilance within relevant heart side effects.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionOur work demonstrated that WMW can prevent intestinal fibrosis and the mechanisms involved may be related to the inhibition of colon fibroblasts activation.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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