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Locked Nucleic Acid Technology for Highly Sensitive Detection of Somatic Mutations in Cancer.

Locked Nucleic Acid Technology for Highly Sensitive Detection of Somatic Mutations in Cancer. Adv Clin Chem. 2018;83:53-72 Authors: Ishige T, Itoga S, Matsushita K Abstract The molecular diagnosis of the cancer mutational status is essential for modern clinical laboratory medicine. Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes are widely analyzed in solid tumors such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma. The allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting, and Sanger sequencing are used for detecting and identifying gene mutations in many clinical laboratories. The locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs that contain a methylene bridge connecting the 2' oxygen and 4' carbon in the ribose moiety. This methylene bridge locks the ribose group into a C3'-endo conformation. LNA, including an oligonucleotide, increases the thermal stability of hybrid strands. The use of LNA technology in molecular diagnostic methods improves the specificity and sensitivity of assays. This review describes routinely analyzed mutations and molecular diagnostic methods used in the clinical laboratory along with the performance improvement of mutational analysis with LNA. PMID: 29304903 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Adv Clin Chem Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Well-designed and well-conducted RCTs have shown no beneficial effect of selenium supplements in reducing cancer risk (high certainty of evidence). Some RCTs have raised concerns by reporting a higher incidence of high-grade prostate cancer and type 2 diabetes in participants with selenium supplementation. No clear evidence of an influence of baseline participant selenium status on outcomes has emerged in these studies.Observational longitudinal studies have shown an inverse association between selenium exposure and risk of some cancer types, but null and direct relations have also been reported, and no system...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
(Future Science Group) Future Medicine is pleased to announce that, from January 2018, the eight journals within its Oncology Management Series -- Breast Cancer Management, CNS Oncology, Colorectal Cancer, Hepatic Oncology, International Journal of Endocrine Oncology, International Journal of Hematologic Oncology, Lung Cancer Management and Melanoma Management, will be following a fully open access model.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Authors: Kann BH, Park HS, Johnson SB, Chiang VL, Yu JB Abstract Background: Management of brain metastases typically includes radiotherapy (RT) with conventional fractionation and/or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). However, optimal indications and practice patterns for SRS remain unclear. We sought to evaluate national practice patterns for patients with metastatic disease receiving brain RT. Methods: We queried the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) for patients diagnosed with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, or melanoma from 2004 to 2014 who received upfront brain RT. Patie...
Source: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Natl Compr Canc Netw Source Type: research
    CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Foundation Medicine, Inc. (NASDAQ:FMI) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved FoundationOne CDx™, the company’s comprehensive companion diagnostic test for solid tumors. FoundationOne CDx is intended for use by health care professionals to help inform cancer treatment management in accordance with professional guidelines for patients with solid tumors. The first and only FDA-approved test of its kind for all solid tumors, FoundationOne CDx is a diagnostic test that acts as: “Access to important genomic information is ...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: IVD Source Type: news
The number of patients with multiple primary malignancies has been increasing steadily in recent years. In the present study, we describe a unique case of an 81-year-old woman with 5 metachronous and synchronous primary malignant neoplasms. The patient was first diagnosed with an endometrium adenocarcinoma in 1997 and a colon adenocarcinoma in 2002. Eleven years after her colon surgery, in 2013, the patient presented with 3 other primary malignancies within a 4-month time span: an invasive malignant melanoma on the lower leg, an invasive mucinous breast carcinoma in the right breast, and a pleomorphic spindle cell sarcoma ...
Source: Case Reports in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: A small library of heterocyclic-containing chalcones was developed and initial screening demonstrates modest activity against cancers, bacteria, and fungi. PMID: 29065840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Med Chem Source Type: research
Author Affiliations open 1 McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada 2 Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), Barcelona, Spain 3 Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain 4 CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain 5 School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada 6 Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA 7 Department of Economics, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA 8 Population Studies Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Cana...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Abstract Familial risks of breast cancer (BC) are well established but whether BC clusters with other, i.e. discordant, cancers is less certain but of interest for the identification of common genetic and possible environmental factors contributing to a general cancer susceptibility. We apply a novel approach to search for familial associations of BC with other (discordant) cancers based on the Swedish Family‐Cancer Database. Relative risks (RRs) were calculated for BC in families with increasing numbers of patients with discordant cancer X, and conversely, familial RRs for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
We report the case of a 66-year-old woman with NSCLC (adenocarcinoma) who presented with a synchronous, isolated splenic metastasis. Operative removal of both primary tumor and metastasis was not possible due to multiple comorbidities. Therefore, treatment was limited to combined systemic chemotherapy and simultaneous radiation of the primary tumor, which led to partial remission of the disease. Isolated metastasis to the spleen in NSCLC has been reported only 28 times in the medical literature, most often in male patients with right-sided lung tumors, most of which were adenocarcinomas. The majority of patients were asymp...
Source: Case Reports in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
From portable genome sequencers until genetic tests revealing distant relations with Thomas Jefferson, genomics represents a fascinatingly innovative area of healthcare. As the price of genome sequencing has been in free fall for years, the start-up scene is bursting from transformative power. Let’s look at some of the most amazing ventures in genomics! The amazing journey of genome sequencing Genome sequencing has been on an amazing scientific as well as economic journey for the last three decades. The Human Genome Project began in 1990 with the aim of mapping the whole structure of the human genome and sequencing ...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Genomics Personalized Medicine AI artificial intelligence bioinformatics cancer DNA dna testing DTC gc3 genetic disorders genetics genome sequencing personal genomics precision medicine Source Type: blogs
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