Locked Nucleic Acid Technology for Highly Sensitive Detection of Somatic Mutations in Cancer.

Locked Nucleic Acid Technology for Highly Sensitive Detection of Somatic Mutations in Cancer. Adv Clin Chem. 2018;83:53-72 Authors: Ishige T, Itoga S, Matsushita K Abstract The molecular diagnosis of the cancer mutational status is essential for modern clinical laboratory medicine. Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes are widely analyzed in solid tumors such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma. The allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting, and Sanger sequencing are used for detecting and identifying gene mutations in many clinical laboratories. The locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs that contain a methylene bridge connecting the 2' oxygen and 4' carbon in the ribose moiety. This methylene bridge locks the ribose group into a C3'-endo conformation. LNA, including an oligonucleotide, increases the thermal stability of hybrid strands. The use of LNA technology in molecular diagnostic methods improves the specificity and sensitivity of assays. This review describes routinely analyzed mutations and molecular diagnostic methods used in the clinical laboratory along with the performance improvement of mutational analysis with LNA. PMID: 29304903 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Adv Clin Chem Source Type: research

Related Links:

As a pharmacist, Kathy James considers herself well educated about the importance of getting regular cancer screenings. Even though the 55-year-old had no history of cancer in her family, she never skipped her regular mammograms, and she gave herself regular breast exams. So she was dumbfounded when, during one of those self-exams in May 2017, she felt a marble-size lump in her left breast. A visit to the doctor confirmed it. “The radiologist came in with his hands in his pockets and looked down and said, ‘It doesn’t look good,'” James says. After a biopsy, James and her husband learned she had meta...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized breast cancer news Frontiers of Medicine Source Type: news
AbstractPurposeEvaluation of postoperative fractionated local 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3DRT) of the resection cavity in brain metastases.Patients and methodsBetween 2011 and 2016, 57  patients underwent resection of a single, previously untreated (37/57, 65%) or recurrent (20/57, 35%) brain metastasis (median maximal diameter 3.5 cm [1.1–6.5 cm]) followed by 3DRT. For definition of the gross tumor volume (GTV), the resection cavity was used and for the clinical target vo lume (CTV), margins of 1.0–1.5 cm were added. Median dose was 48.0 Gy (30.0–50.4 Gy) in 25 (10–28) fracti...
Source: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Mutations in Tumor Protein P53 (p53) are expressed in a variety of human cancers such as cholangiocarcinoma, melanoma, colon cancer, rectal cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), glioblastoma, uterine cervical cancer, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and bladder cancer. The p53 protein is involved in determining whether DNA is repaired or the damaged cell undergoes apoptosis – thus acting as a tumor suppressor by regulating cell division. Mutations in the p53 protein can reduce or eliminate its tumor suppressor function or interfere with wild type p53 in...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: SteroidsAuthor(s): Nguyen Hoai Nam, Ninh Thi Ngoc, Tran Thi Hong Hanh, Nguyen Xuan Cuong, Nguyen Van Thanh, Do Thi Thao, Do Cong Thung, Phan Van Kiem, Chau Van MinhAbstractUsing various chromatographic separations, seventeen steroids including seven new compounds, verrucorosteroids A−F (1−6) and verrucorosterone (7), were isolated from the Vietnamese gorgonian Verrucella corona. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including HR QTOF MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Among isolates, verrucorosterone (7), 5,6α-epoxy-3β-hydroxy-(22E)-ergosta-...
Source: Steroids - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on CancerAuthor(s): Niamh Mc Namee, Lorraine O'DriscollAbstractExtracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes, microvesicles, oncosomes, and microparticles have been associated with communicating anti-cancer drug-resistance. The in vitro, pre-clinical in vivo and patients' data linking EVs to drug-resistance (and the specific drugs involved) in breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, haematological malignancies, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, melanoma...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Reviews on Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: SteroidsAuthor(s): Nguyen Hoai Nam, Ninh Thi Ngoc, Tran Thi Hong Hanh, Nguyen Xuan Cuong, Nguyen Van Thanh, Do Thi Thao, Do Cong Thung, Phan Van Kiem, Chau Van MinhAbstractUsing various chromatographic separations, seventeen steroids including seven new compounds, verrucorosteroids A−F (1−6) and verrucorosterone (7), were isolated from the Vietnamese gorgonian Verrucella corona. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including HR QTOF MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Among isolates, verrucorosterone (7), 5,6α-epoxy-3β-hydroxy-(22E)-ergosta-...
Source: Steroids - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Purpose: Tumor mutational burden (TMB) calculated by whole-exome sequencing (WES) is proved to be effective to predict the clinical benefit of immune checkpoint blockades. However, WES is not commonly used in China. We aimed to determine if a 381-caner-gene panel (CGP) could be used to estimate TMB, delineate the landscape of TMB of Chinese patients and identify mutated genes and pathways related to higher TMB.Methods: We first evaluated the correlation between the TMB estimated by a 381-cancer-gene panel MasterView and WES using the data from the melanoma sample cohort. 3023 formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specime...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care use in solid cancer tumors is variable, with a preference for patients with lung cancer, younger age, known insurance status, and higher educational level. PMID: 29807486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Tags: J Palliat Care Source Type: research
Conclusions: PET imaging with radiolabeled amino acids has been shown be effective for brain tumor imaging, providing high contrast between tumor and normal brain parenchyma. The synthetic leucine amino acid analogue, fluciclovine has been recently FDA approved for evaluation of biochemical recurrent prostate cancer. Recent studies have been published demonstrating the utility of fluciclovine for glioma evaluation. Our findings suggest that fluciclovine can similarly be used for evaluation of new or recurrent brain metastasis in patients who previously have undergone brain radiotherapy where MRI is often limited due to bac...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Preclinical Probes for Oncology Posters Source Type: research
Conclusion: The incidence of BM from lung and breast cancer was similar to that seen in the Western studies. However, BM from colorectal cancer and melanoma show a higher and lower incidence, respectively, in comparison with the Western literature.
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Breast Cancer | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Colorectal Cancer | Genetics | Laboratory Medicine | Lung Cancer | Melanoma | Skin Cancer