Locked Nucleic Acid Technology for Highly Sensitive Detection of Somatic Mutations in Cancer.

Locked Nucleic Acid Technology for Highly Sensitive Detection of Somatic Mutations in Cancer. Adv Clin Chem. 2018;83:53-72 Authors: Ishige T, Itoga S, Matsushita K Abstract The molecular diagnosis of the cancer mutational status is essential for modern clinical laboratory medicine. Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes are widely analyzed in solid tumors such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma. The allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting, and Sanger sequencing are used for detecting and identifying gene mutations in many clinical laboratories. The locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs that contain a methylene bridge connecting the 2' oxygen and 4' carbon in the ribose moiety. This methylene bridge locks the ribose group into a C3'-endo conformation. LNA, including an oligonucleotide, increases the thermal stability of hybrid strands. The use of LNA technology in molecular diagnostic methods improves the specificity and sensitivity of assays. This review describes routinely analyzed mutations and molecular diagnostic methods used in the clinical laboratory along with the performance improvement of mutational analysis with LNA. PMID: 29304903 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Adv Clin Chem Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: SteroidsAuthor(s): Nguyen Hoai Nam, Ninh Thi Ngoc, Tran Thi Hong Hanh, Nguyen Xuan Cuong, Nguyen Van Thanh, Do Thi Thao, Do Cong Thung, Phan Van Kiem, Chau Van MinhAbstractUsing various chromatographic separations, seventeen steroids including seven new compounds, verrucorosteroids A−F (1−6) and verrucorosterone (7), were isolated from the Vietnamese gorgonian Verrucella corona. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including HR QTOF MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Among isolates, verrucorosterone (7), 5,6α-epoxy-3β-hydroxy-(22E)-ergosta-...
Source: Steroids - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on CancerAuthor(s): Niamh Mc Namee, Lorraine O'DriscollAbstractExtracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes, microvesicles, oncosomes, and microparticles have been associated with communicating anti-cancer drug-resistance. The in vitro, pre-clinical in vivo and patients' data linking EVs to drug-resistance (and the specific drugs involved) in breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, haematological malignancies, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, melanoma...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Reviews on Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: SteroidsAuthor(s): Nguyen Hoai Nam, Ninh Thi Ngoc, Tran Thi Hong Hanh, Nguyen Xuan Cuong, Nguyen Van Thanh, Do Thi Thao, Do Cong Thung, Phan Van Kiem, Chau Van MinhAbstractUsing various chromatographic separations, seventeen steroids including seven new compounds, verrucorosteroids A−F (1−6) and verrucorosterone (7), were isolated from the Vietnamese gorgonian Verrucella corona. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including HR QTOF MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Among isolates, verrucorosterone (7), 5,6α-epoxy-3β-hydroxy-(22E)-ergosta-...
Source: Steroids - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Purpose: Tumor mutational burden (TMB) calculated by whole-exome sequencing (WES) is proved to be effective to predict the clinical benefit of immune checkpoint blockades. However, WES is not commonly used in China. We aimed to determine if a 381-caner-gene panel (CGP) could be used to estimate TMB, delineate the landscape of TMB of Chinese patients and identify mutated genes and pathways related to higher TMB.Methods: We first evaluated the correlation between the TMB estimated by a 381-cancer-gene panel MasterView and WES using the data from the melanoma sample cohort. 3023 formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specime...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care use in solid cancer tumors is variable, with a preference for patients with lung cancer, younger age, known insurance status, and higher educational level. PMID: 29807486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Tags: J Palliat Care Source Type: research
Conclusions: PET imaging with radiolabeled amino acids has been shown be effective for brain tumor imaging, providing high contrast between tumor and normal brain parenchyma. The synthetic leucine amino acid analogue, fluciclovine has been recently FDA approved for evaluation of biochemical recurrent prostate cancer. Recent studies have been published demonstrating the utility of fluciclovine for glioma evaluation. Our findings suggest that fluciclovine can similarly be used for evaluation of new or recurrent brain metastasis in patients who previously have undergone brain radiotherapy where MRI is often limited due to bac...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Preclinical Probes for Oncology Posters Source Type: research
Conclusion: The incidence of BM from lung and breast cancer was similar to that seen in the Western studies. However, BM from colorectal cancer and melanoma show a higher and lower incidence, respectively, in comparison with the Western literature.
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Wang Y, Lan GB, Peng FH, Xie XB Abstract Renal transplantation is associated with an increased risk of cancers at multiple sites; however, the relationships between increased cancer risk and participant characteristics remain unclear. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify prospective observational studies performed up to July 2017. Totally 11 prospective studies reported data on 79,988 renal transplant recipients were included. Renal transplant recipients were found to display a higher risk of all cancers (standard incidence ratio [SIR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.13-3.91; P
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundTargeted methylation sequencing of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has a potential to expand liquid biopsies to patients with tumors without detectable oncogenic alterations, which can be potentially useful in early diagnosis.Patients and methodsWe developed a comprehensive methylation sequencing assay targeting 9223 CpG sites consistently hypermethylated according to The Cancer Genome Atlas. Next, we carried out a clinical validation of our method using plasma cfDNA samples from 78 patients with advanced colorectal cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), breast cancer or melanoma and compared results wi...
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsBecause second primary malignancy developed often after achieving CR by dCRT for ESCC, it should be followed carefully.
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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