Locked Nucleic Acid Technology for Highly Sensitive Detection of Somatic Mutations in Cancer.

Locked Nucleic Acid Technology for Highly Sensitive Detection of Somatic Mutations in Cancer. Adv Clin Chem. 2018;83:53-72 Authors: Ishige T, Itoga S, Matsushita K Abstract The molecular diagnosis of the cancer mutational status is essential for modern clinical laboratory medicine. Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes are widely analyzed in solid tumors such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma. The allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting, and Sanger sequencing are used for detecting and identifying gene mutations in many clinical laboratories. The locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs that contain a methylene bridge connecting the 2' oxygen and 4' carbon in the ribose moiety. This methylene bridge locks the ribose group into a C3'-endo conformation. LNA, including an oligonucleotide, increases the thermal stability of hybrid strands. The use of LNA technology in molecular diagnostic methods improves the specificity and sensitivity of assays. This review describes routinely analyzed mutations and molecular diagnostic methods used in the clinical laboratory along with the performance improvement of mutational analysis with LNA. PMID: 29304903 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Adv Clin Chem Source Type: research

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Conclusion: The incidence of BM from lung and breast cancer was similar to that seen in the Western studies. However, BM from colorectal cancer and melanoma show a higher and lower incidence, respectively, in comparison with the Western literature.
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Wang Y, Lan GB, Peng FH, Xie XB Abstract Renal transplantation is associated with an increased risk of cancers at multiple sites; however, the relationships between increased cancer risk and participant characteristics remain unclear. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify prospective observational studies performed up to July 2017. Totally 11 prospective studies reported data on 79,988 renal transplant recipients were included. Renal transplant recipients were found to display a higher risk of all cancers (standard incidence ratio [SIR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.13-3.91; P
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
ConclusionsBecause second primary malignancy developed often after achieving CR by dCRT for ESCC, it should be followed carefully.
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Because second primary malignancy developed often after achieving CR by dCRT for ESCC, it should be followed carefully. PMID: 29520523 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Oncol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Well-designed and well-conducted RCTs have shown no beneficial effect of selenium supplements in reducing cancer risk (high certainty of evidence). Some RCTs have raised concerns by reporting a higher incidence of high-grade prostate cancer and type 2 diabetes in participants with selenium supplementation. No clear evidence of an influence of baseline participant selenium status on outcomes has emerged in these studies.Observational longitudinal studies have shown an inverse association between selenium exposure and risk of some cancer types, but null and direct relations have also been reported, and no system...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
(Future Science Group) Future Medicine is pleased to announce that, from January 2018, the eight journals within its Oncology Management Series -- Breast Cancer Management, CNS Oncology, Colorectal Cancer, Hepatic Oncology, International Journal of Endocrine Oncology, International Journal of Hematologic Oncology, Lung Cancer Management and Melanoma Management, will be following a fully open access model.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Authors: Kann BH, Park HS, Johnson SB, Chiang VL, Yu JB Abstract Background: Management of brain metastases typically includes radiotherapy (RT) with conventional fractionation and/or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). However, optimal indications and practice patterns for SRS remain unclear. We sought to evaluate national practice patterns for patients with metastatic disease receiving brain RT. Methods: We queried the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) for patients diagnosed with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, or melanoma from 2004 to 2014 who received upfront brain RT. Patie...
Source: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Natl Compr Canc Netw Source Type: research
    CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Foundation Medicine, Inc. (NASDAQ:FMI) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved FoundationOne CDx™, the company’s comprehensive companion diagnostic test for solid tumors. FoundationOne CDx is intended for use by health care professionals to help inform cancer treatment management in accordance with professional guidelines for patients with solid tumors. The first and only FDA-approved test of its kind for all solid tumors, FoundationOne CDx is a diagnostic test that acts as: “Access to important genomic information is ...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: IVD Source Type: news
The number of patients with multiple primary malignancies has been increasing steadily in recent years. In the present study, we describe a unique case of an 81-year-old woman with 5 metachronous and synchronous primary malignant neoplasms. The patient was first diagnosed with an endometrium adenocarcinoma in 1997 and a colon adenocarcinoma in 2002. Eleven years after her colon surgery, in 2013, the patient presented with 3 other primary malignancies within a 4-month time span: an invasive malignant melanoma on the lower leg, an invasive mucinous breast carcinoma in the right breast, and a pleomorphic spindle cell sarcoma ...
Source: Case Reports in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: A small library of heterocyclic-containing chalcones was developed and initial screening demonstrates modest activity against cancers, bacteria, and fungi. PMID: 29065840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Med Chem Source Type: research
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