Childhood Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System With Metachronous Hemorrhagic Infarcts: A Postmortem Study With Clinicopathologic Correlation

This neuropathologic case study illustrates the discovery of metachronous hemorrhagic infarcts insinuating round mass-like lesions by magnetic resonance imaging in the setting of childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system (cPACNS) raising diagnostic awareness of this unusual presentation in a clinical and neuroimaging context. The report underscores the importance of recurrent vasculitis-induced ischemic brain damage as a pathologic correlate of relapsing cPACNS and offers a critical reappraisal of common imitators as well as a clinicopathologic approach to differential diagnosis. Attention is drawn to the caveat that although magnetic resonance imaging findings at initial presentation may not be typical for stroke, they later exhibit attributes of cerebral infarction at both the subacute and chronic stages. A pattern of cPACNS characterized predominantly by multiple petechial-like cortical hemorrhages with pathologic features of hemorrhagic infarcts is recognized. The present study lends credence to the practice of a rigorous autopsy-based approach aimed at a better understanding of the anatomic pathology and biology of cPACNS and at facilitating prospective neuroimaging and biopsy-based surgical pathology correlations, ultimately enhancing diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings. Although PACNS is, by definition, a diagnosis of exclusion, it should be considered from the outset in the differential diagnosis of ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke or of unusu...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research

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ConclusionsThe most frequent causes of cSAH in our series were cerebral amyloid angiopathy, ischaemic stroke, and vasculitis. This type of haemorrhage has a worse prognosis than other non-aneurysmal cSAH. There are numerous possible causes, and prognosis depends on the aetiology. In elderly patients, intracranial haemorrhage is frequently associated with cognitive impairment.ResumenIntroducciónLas hemorragias subaracnoideas corticales (HSAc) tienen numerosas etiologías. No hay estudios prospectivos que indiquen su evolución a largo plazo. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las característi...
Source: Neurologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Intracranial artery calcification is common in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and the intracranial carotid artery is most frequently affected. Intracranial arterial calcifications might be associated with imaging markers of SVD and are highly correlated with WMHs, lacunes, and CMBs. Quantification of calcification on CT provides additional information on the pathophysiology of SVD. Intracranial arterial calcification could act as a potential marker of SVD. Introduction Atherosclerosis is a systemic vascular process that is considered a major cause of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular di...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Shanshan Zhang1, Dongli Yuan2 and Ge Tan1* 1Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China 2The Institute of Medical Information, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Primary systemic vasculitis can affect every structure in both the central and peripheral nervous system, causing varied neurological manifestations of neurological dysfunction. Early recognition of the underlying causes of the neurological symptoms can facilitate timely treatment and improve the prognosis. This review highlights the clinical manifestations of primary systemic vasc...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The vasculitides are diseases characterized by inflammation of blood vessels and inflammatory leukocytes in vessel walls. There is an increased propensity for ischemic stroke, resulting from compromise of vessel lumina with distal tissue ischemia; and hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic stroke, and aneurysmal formation and bleeding, due to loss of vessel integrity.
Source: Neurologic Clinics - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Psychostimulant use is associated with increased stroke risk. To determine the proportion of psychostimulant users among fatal strokes in young adults (15-44 years), all cases were retrieved from the National Coronial Information System (1/1/2009-31/12/2016). A total of 279 cases were identified: hemorrhagic (259), ischemic (8), thrombotic (8), and mycotic (4). Fifty (17.9%) were identified as psychostimulant users. Psychostimulants in blood were detected in 37/45 where toxicology was available, predominantly methamphetamine (32/45). Hemorrhagic strokes in the psychostimulant group were more likely t...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe proposed the embolism or hemodynamic changes of the border zone arterioles as a unifying pathogenetic hypothesis of coexisting c-SAH and AIS.
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Discussion-Local manifestations of snake bite are soft-tissue swelling from edema, necrosis, and hemorrhage. Common long-term sequelae of envenomation is soft-tissue atrophy distal to the bite, particularly in the digits.-Systemic signs and symptoms after a venomous snake bite are due to anticoagulant/procoagulant activity or neurotoxicity. Cerebral hypoxia can occur due to hypotensive shock that may accompany some snake bite envenomations. Neuromuscular disorders with damage of the peripheral nervous system can with blockage of synaptic transmission, at either presynaptic or postsynaptic levels.Common neuro...
Source: Sumer's Radiology Site - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
This study aimed to determine the body mass index (BMI) of fatal stroke cases amongst young adults, their clinical characteristics and the association with BMI with risk factors. All cases aged 15-44 years where death was attributed to stroke for whom BMI was available were retrieved from the National Coronial Information System (1/1/2009-31/12/2016). 179 cases were identified: haemorrhagic (165), ischaemic (5), thrombotic (6), mycotic (3), embolic (0). Proportions in each BMI category were: underweight (5.6%), normal weight (37.4%), overweight (27.4%), obese (29.6%). There was a significant linear trend in the proportion ...
Source: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine - Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusion: More data regarding alteplase treatment in patients with GPA are needed to further establish the safety of this therapy. PMID: 30689698 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy : AJHP - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Am J Health Syst Pharm Source Type: research
We report a case of RCVS with hidden breast cancer in which ischemic stroke and cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed earlier than vasoconstriction, and there were positive autoantibodies.
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
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