Epigenetic Regulation of Adult Myogenesis.

Epigenetic Regulation of Adult Myogenesis. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;126:235-284 Authors: Robinson DCL, Dilworth FJ Abstract Skeletal muscle regeneration is an efficient stem cell-based repair system that ensures healthy musculature. For this repair system to function continuously throughout life, muscle stem cells must contribute to the process of myofiber repair as well as repopulation of the stem cell niche. The decision made by the muscle stem cells to commit to the muscle repair or to remain a stem cell depends upon patterns of gene expression, a process regulated at the epigenetic level. Indeed, it is well accepted that dynamic changes in epigenetic landscapes to control DNA accessibility and expression is a critical component during myogenesis for the effective repair of damaged muscle. Changes in the epigenetic landscape are governed by various posttranslational histone tail modifications, nucleosome repositioning, and DNA methylation events which collectively allow the control of changes in transcription networks during transitions of satellite cells from a dormant quiescent state toward terminal differentiation. This chapter focuses upon the specific epigenetic changes that occur during muscle stem cell-mediated regeneration to ensure myofiber repair and continuity of the stem cell compartment. Furthermore, we explore open questions in the field that are expected to be important areas of exploration as we move toward a more thorough understanding...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Materials TodayAuthor(s): Yanling Zhou, Chengtie Wu, Jiang ChangAbstractBioceramics have been used for the replacement and repair of damaged hard tissues for about 50 years, in which the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the materials are critical factors to be considered for their clinical applications. Recently, more and more studies have demonstrated that bioceramics with specific chemical composition and topographical structure have activity to regulate the fate of stem cells and the interaction with their microenvironment, which result in enhanced ...
Source: Materials Today - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Contributors : Yanjiao Li ; KunShan Zhang ; Jiaoni Cheng ; Yaolong Wang ; Jie Liu ; Orion S Fan ; Xingfei Wu ; Pengfei Bao ; Qiong Bai ; Congtao Yu ; Hailiang Liu ; Zhaoxia Ma ; Xinpei Gao ; Lirong Li ; Jinxue Liu ; Change Liu ; Daiping Ma ; Bin Jiang ; Fangyun Chen ; Shu Liang ; Qi Gu ; Zhuowei Yu ; Zhaojie Wang ; Kunhua Wang ; Yi E Sun ; Min HuSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exist in many tissues and have emerged as promising candidates for therapeutic interventions. While MSCs may be used to reverse aging, they themselves also age. For ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Authors: Li Y, Yu Z, Men Y, Chen X, Wang B Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess the possibility and efficacy of utilizing a laminin-chitosan-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid), otherwise known as laminin-chitosan-PLGA, nerve conduit with the co-transplantation of Schwann and neural stem cells to repair peripheral nerve defects. Previous in vitro experiments have demonstrated that the three-dimensional structure of the built in fiber filament electrospinning of laminin-chitosan-PLGA nerve conduit is beneficial to the migration and regeneration of nerve cells, and has notable mechanical strength and plasti...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Chen Z, Chen Q, Du H, Xu L, Wan J Abstract The present study intended to observe the homing capability and therapeutic effect of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR-4) gene overexpressed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on colitis, and to study the possible mechanisms involved. BMSCs were derived from male BALB/c mice and CXCR-4 gene was transfected into BMSCs by the utilization of the lentiviral vector. The expression of CXCR-4 gene was analyzed and the biological characteristics, and vitality of BMSCs and CXCR-4 gene overexpressed BMSCs (CXCR-BMSCs) were detected. The chemotaxis assay was performed ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
A large number of clinical trials have shown stem cell therapy to be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Since the first transplantation into human patients, several stem cell types have been applied in this field, including bone marrow derived stem cells, cardiac progenitors as well as embryonic stem cells and their derivatives. However, results obtained from clinical studies are inconsistent and stem cell-based improvement of heart performance and cardiac remodeling was found to be quite limited. In order to optimize stem cell efficiency, it is crucial to elucidate the underlyin...
Source: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Masoumeh Faezi, Solmaz Nasseri Maleki, Nahid Aboutaleb, Mahin NikougoftarAbstractObjectiveThe mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic membrane have the ability to secrete and release some factors that can promote the repair of damaged tissues. This secretome contains proteins and factors that reduce apoptosis and increase angiogenesis in the ischemia/reperfusion models. The present study was conducted to determine whether this secretome provides protection against transient focal cerebral ischemia.Materials and Me...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Wound Repair and Regeneration,Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
Source: Wound Repair and Regeneration - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Journal of OrthopaedicsAuthor(s): Carolyn A. Meyers, Jia Shen, Amy Lu, Aaron W. JamesAbstractPerivascular stem cells (PSC) are a progenitor population defined by their perivascular residence. Recent studies have examined the relative difference in Wnt ligands to induce PSC differentiation, including Wnt16. Here, we examine the role of Wnt16 in the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human PSC. Treatment of PSC with WNT16 significantly increased cell proliferation to a greater extent than did WNT3A. In addition, WNT16 showed a significant increase in osteo...
Source: Journal of Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Samumed is noteworthy for the breadth of their regenerative medicine development pipeline, based as it is on a single technology platform, the manipulation of Wnt signaling. Their trials to date are attempts to use variations on this approach to increase regenerative capacity in aging and damaged tissues. The company might be viewed as an early example of the fork in the road for the regenerative medicine community, arising after first generation stem cell therapies have matured. Some groups will produce better, more advanced cell therapies, aiming to improve the survival and utility of transplanted cells. Others, like Sam...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
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