Epigenetic Regulation of Adult Myogenesis.

Epigenetic Regulation of Adult Myogenesis. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;126:235-284 Authors: Robinson DCL, Dilworth FJ Abstract Skeletal muscle regeneration is an efficient stem cell-based repair system that ensures healthy musculature. For this repair system to function continuously throughout life, muscle stem cells must contribute to the process of myofiber repair as well as repopulation of the stem cell niche. The decision made by the muscle stem cells to commit to the muscle repair or to remain a stem cell depends upon patterns of gene expression, a process regulated at the epigenetic level. Indeed, it is well accepted that dynamic changes in epigenetic landscapes to control DNA accessibility and expression is a critical component during myogenesis for the effective repair of damaged muscle. Changes in the epigenetic landscape are governed by various posttranslational histone tail modifications, nucleosome repositioning, and DNA methylation events which collectively allow the control of changes in transcription networks during transitions of satellite cells from a dormant quiescent state toward terminal differentiation. This chapter focuses upon the specific epigenetic changes that occur during muscle stem cell-mediated regeneration to ensure myofiber repair and continuity of the stem cell compartment. Furthermore, we explore open questions in the field that are expected to be important areas of exploration as we move toward a more thorough understanding...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Horie S, Gonzalez HE, Laffey JG, Masterson CH Abstract Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is driven by a severe pro-inflammatory response resulting in lung damage, impaired gas exchange and severe respiratory failure. There is no specific treatment that effectively improves outcome in ARDS. However, in recent years, cell therapy has shown great promise in preclinical ARDS studies. A wide range of cells have been identified as potential candidates for use, among these are mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which are adult multi-lineage cells that can modulate the immune response and enhance repair of...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research
Stem Cells and Development, Ahead of Print.
Source: Stem Cells and Development - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractIschemic cardiomyopathy is the cardiovascular condition with the highest impact on the Western population. In mammals (humans included), prolonged ischemia in the ventricular walls causes the death of cardiomyocytes (myocardial infarction, MI). The loss of myocardial mass is soon compensated by the formation of a reparative, non-contractile fibrotic scar that ultimately affects heart performance. Despite the enormous clinical relevance of MI, no effective therapy is available for the long-term treatment of this condition. Moreover, since the human heart is not able to undergo spontaneous regeneration, many research...
Source: Heart Failure Reviews - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
We performed a comparative study of the formation of γН2АХ foci (a marker of DNA doublestrand breaks) in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells after 24-h incubation with3Н-thimidin and tritium oxide with low specific activities (50-800 MBq/liter). The dependence of the number of γH2AX foci on specific activity of 3H-thymidine was described by a linear equationy=2.21+43.45x (R2=0.96), wherey is the number of γH2AX foci per nucleus andx is specific activity in 1000 MBq/liter. For tritium oxide, the relationship was described by a linear equationy=2.52+6.70x (R2=0.97). Thus, the yield of DNA double-st...
Source: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Colorectal cancer initiating cells (CIC) were resistant to conventional chemotherapy in cell ‐autonomous assays. This was partly mediated by Poly(ADP‐Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) DNA repair. Small molecule PARP inhibitors (PARPi) monotherapy failed to kill CICs. However, in combination with chemotherapy, PARPi reduced CIC viability, self‐renewal, and DNA damage repair. Combined PARPi the rapy with chemotherapy attenuated tumor growth in vivo. AbstractColorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading killer in the U.S. with resistance to treatment as the largest hurdle to cure. Colorectal cancer ‐initiating cells (CICs) are a ...
Source: Stem Cells - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Cancer Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General SubjectsAuthor(s): Mudra Binju, Monica Amaya Padilla, Terence Singomat, Pritinder Kaur, Yohan Suryo Rahmanto, Paul Cohen, Yu YuAbstractBackgroundAdvanced epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the hardest human malignancies to treat. Standard treatment involves cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, however, median progression-free survival for patients diagnosed with advanced stage disease (FIGO stages III and IV) is approximately 18 months. There has been little improvement in overall survival over the ...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
This study's researchers approached all people turning 85 in 2006 in two cities in the UK for participation. At the beginning of the study in 2006-2007, there were 722 participants, 60 percent of whom were women. The participants provided researchers with information about what they ate every day, their body weight and height measurements, their overall health assessment (including any level of disability), and their medical records. The researchers learned that more than one-quarter (28 percent) of very old adults had protein intakes below the recommended dietary allowance. The researchers noted that older adults w...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This study aims to explore whether Insulin ‐like growth factor 1 (IGF‐1) and bone morphogenetic protein‐7 (BMP‐7)‐modified bone‐marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) affect the repair of cartilage damage found in the knee. Primarily, BMSCs were treated with a series of pEGFP‐C1, IGF‐1, and BMP‐7, followed by determination o f IGF‐1 and BMP‐7 expression. A rabbit cartilage defect model was also established. Afterfward, cell morphology, viability, cartilage damage repair effect, and expression of collagen I and collagen II at the 6th and the 12th week were measured. BMSCs treated with pEGFP‐C1/IGF‐1...
Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Xujie Wang, Yijie Zhang, Yunshu Yang, Wei Zhang, Liang Luo, Fu Han, Hao Guan, Ke Tao, Dahai HuAbstractBone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess promising therapeutic effects and have been considered as a highly desirable agent for tissue injury treatment. However, little survived cells after transplanting due to severe relocated conditions (characterized by prolonged hypoxia and oxidative stress) lead to hampered benefits of BMSCs-based cell therapy. Curcumin, a natural dietary product, has attracted increasing attention o...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: We have identifiedneil3 as a component of therax genetic pathway necessary for normal retinal progenitor cell development.neil3 is involved in the base excision DNA repair pathway, suggesting that this pathway is essential for normalrax‐dependent progenitor cell development in the mature retina.Developmental Dynamics 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Source: Developmental Dynamics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
More News: Biology | Gastroschisis Repair | Genetics | Nicotine | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells