Translational Control of the Myogenic Program in Developing, Regenerating, and Diseased Skeletal Muscle.

Translational Control of the Myogenic Program in Developing, Regenerating, and Diseased Skeletal Muscle. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;126:67-98 Authors: Fujita R, Crist C Abstract Translational control of genes that code for protein allows a cell to rapidly respond to changes in its environment, in part because translational control of gene expression does not depend on upstream events required to produce an mRNA molecule. The importance of translational control has been highlighted by studies concerning muscle development, regeneration, and disease. Translational control of specific mRNAs is achieved by microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, which are particularly relevant to developmental myogenesis, where they ensure the stepwise differentiation of multipotent progenitors to committed myogenic progenitors that ultimately fuse into slow- or fast-type myofibers that make up skeletal muscle. The importance of translational control is also illustrated in muscle disease, where deregulated microRNA expression accelerates or delays progression of disease. Skeletal muscle is also unique for its remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury, which requires the activity of quiescent muscle stem cells, named satellite cells for their position underneath the basal lamina of the myofiber. Mitotically quiescent satellite cells are primed to activate the cell cycle and myogenic program, a unique feature that requires specific regulation of mRNA translation converging with ...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

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Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for heart failure: a meta-analysis. Herz. 2018 Oct 19;: Authors: Fu H, Chen Q Abstract BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment has emerged as an important adjunct therapy for heart failure. However, the use of MSC to treat heart failure has not been well established. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of MSC treatment for heart failure. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the influence of MSC treatment on ...
Source: Herz - Category: Cardiology Tags: Herz Source Type: research
In this study, we further explored the mechanism underlying CD133-mediated cisplatin resistance in glioblastoma stem cells. We sorted human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells into CD133+ and CD133− pools and measured apoptosis and CD133 expression levels in response to cisplatin treatment. We predicted candidate microRNAs that might target CD133 and assessed their levels in cisplatin-treated CD133+ cells. Finally, we overexpressed miR-29a in CD133+ cells and tested its effects in cisplatin-mediated apoptosis and survival of CD133+ tumor bearing mice receiving cisplatin treatment. We found that CD133+ glioblastoma stem...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In conclusion, molecular alterations in ependymoma involve miRNAs. In our report, we review the level of evidence for the biomarker candidacy of identified miRNAs. Confirmatory studies are necessary to establish robust biomarkers for the clinical management of ependymoma. Proteins regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs are additional candidate biomarkers and may offer targets for novel therapeutic interventions.
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Pediatric Transplantation, EarlyView.
Source: Pediatric Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: 20 October 2018Source: New Scientist, Volume 240, Issue 3200Author(s): Clare Wilson
Source: New Scientist - Category: Science Source Type: research
Authors: Rahmé R, Adès L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal stem cell disorders mostly affecting the elderly. They are classified into lower and higher risk MDS according to prognostic scoring systems. In higher-risk patients, treatments should aim to modify the disease course by avoiding progression to acute myeloid leukemia, and therefore to improve survival. Areas covered: Stem cell transplantation remains the only curative treatment when feasible, but this concerns a small minority of patients. Treatment is principally based on hypomethylating agents (HMAs). Our unde...
Source: Expert Review of Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: Expert Rev Hematol Source Type: research
In this report, we propose that the molecular mechanisms of beneficial actions of CR should be classified and discussed according to whether they operate under rich or insufficient energy resource conditions. Future studies of the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of CR should also consider the extent to which the signals/factors involved contribute to the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and other CR actions in each tissue or organ, and thereby lead to anti-aging and prolongevity. RNA Interference of ATP Synthase Subunits Slows Aging in Nematodes https://www.fightaging.org/archives/...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2018Source: Biochemical Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Thomas R.J. Heathman, Alvin W. Nienow, Qasim A. Rafiq, Karen Coopman, Bo Kara, Christopher J. HewittAbstractHuman Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) are advancing through clinical development with the first allogeneic adult hMSC therapy receiving approval in Europe. To enable successful large-scale manufacture of hMSC therapies, increased product consistency and yield, and a reduced batch-to-batch variation must be achieved. This paper addresses ways to reduce variation by controlling the processing conditions, in particular the...
Source: Biochemical Engineering Journal - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of hUCMSCs in SCI mice can promote the polarization of M2 macrophages by reducing the expression of IL-7 in the injured site, thereby weakening the inflammatory response at the injured site, promoting the repair of the injured site and improving the motor function. PMID: 30338812 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: MicroRNA-615-3p participates in the development and progression of osteoarthritis by increasing the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. PMID: 30338787 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
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