The Composition, Development, and Regeneration of Neuromuscular Junctions.

The Composition, Development, and Regeneration of Neuromuscular Junctions. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;126:99-124 Authors: Liu W, Chakkalakal JV Abstract The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the specialized site that connects the terminal of a motor neuron axon to skeletal muscle. As a synapse NMJ integrity is essential for transducing motor neuron signals that initiate skeletal muscle contraction. Many diseases and skeletal muscle aging are linked to impaired NMJ function and the associated muscle wasting. In this chapter we review the components of an NMJ and, the processes of NMJ development, maturation, and regeneration. Also, we briefly discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms of NMJ decline in the context of disease and aging. PMID: 29305005 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research

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Mammalian motor circuits display remarkable cellular diversity with hundreds of motor neuron (MN) subtypes innervating hundreds of different muscles. Extensive research on limb muscle-innervating MNs has begun...
Source: Neural Development - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
In conclusion, these results suggest that VGF C-terminal peptides exert their neuroprotective effects via activation of MAPKs such as Akt and ERK1/2. Furthermore, these findings indicate that VGF-derived peptides have potential application in ALS therapy. PMID: 30656593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neurochemical Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Current hypotheses suggest that neuroinflammation and the immune system play a complex role, either protective or toxic, in ALS pathogenesis [1 –3]. In particular, compelling evidence indicate that increased blood level of natural killer (NK) and NK-T cells may contribute to the disease development and progression [2,3].
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Gerburg Keilhoff, Ricardo Pirex Mbou, Benjamin Lucas, Lorenz SchildAbstractMotor neuron damage caused by diseases, traumatic insults or de-afferentation of the spinal cord is often incurable due to the poor intrinsic regenerative capacity. Moreover, regenerated peripheral nerves often do not reach normal functionality. Here, we investigated cardiolipin in the process of neuro-differentiation, since cardiolipin is closely linked to the mitochondrial energy supply in cells. The NSC-34 hybrid cell line, produced by fusing neuroblastoma cells with...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2019Source: Seminars in Cell &Developmental Biology, Volume 85Author(s): Minkyung Kim, Brielle Bjorke, Grant S. MastickAbstractMotor neurons differentiate from progenitor cells and cluster as motor nuclei, settling next to the floor plate in the brain stem and spinal cord. Although precise positioning of motor neurons is critical for their functional input and output, the molecular mechanisms that guide motor neurons to their proper positions remain poorly understood. Here, we review recent evidence of motor neuron positioning mechanisms, highlighting situations in which motor neuron cell bodi...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2019Source: Seminars in Cell &Developmental Biology, Volume 85Author(s): Aref Arzan Zarin, Juan-Pablo LabradorAbstractThe Drosophila motor system starts to assemble during embryonic development. It is composed of 30 muscles per abdominal hemisegment and 36 motor neurons assembling into nerve branches to exit the CNS, navigate within the muscle field and finally establish specific connections with their target muscles. Several families of guidance molecules that play a role controlling this process as well as transcriptional regulators that program the behavior of specific motor neuron have bee...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2019Source: Seminars in Cell &Developmental Biology, Volume 85Author(s): Dario BonanomiAbstractMotor neurons of the spinal cord are responsible for the assembly of neuromuscular connections indispensable for basic locomotion and skilled movements. A precise spatial relationship exists between the position of motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord and the course of their axonal projections to peripheral muscle targets. Motor neuron innervation of the vertebrate limb is a prime example of this topographic organization and by virtue of its accessibility and predictability has provided access...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
No abstract available
Source: Neurology Today - Category: Neurology Tags: Professionalism Source Type: research
We describe three cases that have been under review for a minimum of 11 years (range 11–19). In all patients, symptoms started in a leg, with a mean age of onset of 59 years (range 53–63). The only abnormality on laborator y investigations was a mildly elevated CSF protein in one case. MRI demonstrated focal T2 hyper-intensity located eccentrically in the cervical cord ipsilateral to the symptomatic side. No cerebral abnormality was demonstrated. Whilst visual and somatosensory evoked potentials were unremarkable, mot or evoked potentials were abnormal in all patients: central motor conduction times w...
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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