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Lab notes: from zero aliens to a whopping prime, 2018 is already racking up the digits

We ’re going to start big: with over 23m digits. That’s right, not even a week into 2018 and records have already tumbled at the discovery of thelargest prime number ever to be found - less than a year after its predecessor. It ’s exciting, it a math-sy sort of way, but for my money the most intriguing story this week was the genetic analysis of an ice age baby girl which has revealeda new group of Native Americans: the ancient Beringians. One of our experts also unpackedwhat the ancient DNA discovery tells us about Native American ancestry, and it ’s a fascinating read. A less pleasing genetic revelation (well, for those of us who enjoyed a sherry or two this Christmas) is the suggestion thatalcohol can cause irreversible genetic damage to stem cells. Scientists made the discovery while trying to understand the link between drinking and cancer. On the plus side, there has beena big breakthrough in the quest to find an effective, non-addictive alternative to opioid painkillers– some much-needed good news as the global opioid addiction crisis worsens. Finally, it’s bad news, but so damn interesting: an analysis of ‘Tabby’s star’ (also known as KIC 8462852) has shown thatthere ’s no alien megastructure around it. Still, it ’s early days yet: let’s see where the hunt for alien life goes in 2018.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Science Source Type: news

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"Alcohol and endogenous aldehydes damage chromosomes and mutate stem cells"Juan I. Garaycoechea, Gerry P. Crossan, Fr édéric Langevin, Lee Mulderrig, Sandra Louzada,  Fentang Yang, Guillaume Guilbaud, Naomi Park, Sophie Roerink, Serena Nik-Zainal, Michael R.Stratton&Ketan J. Patel   Nature doi:10.1038/nature25154This pay-walled article, published in "Nature," presents fresh evidence that alcohol can damage chromosomes and cause mutations. If you don't have a zillion dollars to spare, The American Cancer Society has put together a layman's version of the subjecthere....
Source: Addiction Inbox - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2017 Source:Cancer Cell Author(s): Érika Cosset, Sten Ilmjärv, Valérie Dutoit, Kathryn Elliott, Tami von Schalscha, Maria F. Camargo, Alexander Reiss, Toshiro Moroishi, Laetitia Seguin, German Gomez, Jung-Soon Moo, Olivier Preynat-Seauve, Karl-Heinz Krause, Hervé Chneiweiss, Jann N. Sarkaria, Kun-Liang Guan, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Sara M. Weis, Paul S. Mischel, David A. Cheresh While molecular subtypes of glioblastoma (GBM) are defined using gene expression and mutation profiles, we identify a unique subpopulation based on addiction to the high-affini...
Source: Cancer Cell - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017 Source:Japanese Dental Science Review Author(s): Yasumasa Kato, Toyonobu Maeda, Atsuko Suzuki, Yuh Baba Initial studies of cancer metabolism in the early 1920s found that cancer cells were phenotypically characterized by aerobic glycolysis, in that these cells favor glucose uptake and lactate production, even in the presence of oxygen. This property, called the Warburg effect, is considered a hallmark of cancer. The mechanism by which these cells acquire aerobic glycolysis has been uncovered. Acidic extracellular fluid, secreted by cancer cells, induces a malignant phen...
Source: Japanese Dental Science Review - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
Conclusions: These new resources offer substantial advances to classical toxicity testing paradigms by including genetically sensitive individuals that may inform toxicity risks for sensitive subpopulations. Both in vivo and complementary in vitro resources provide platforms with which to reduce uncertainty by providing population-level data around biological variability. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1274 Received: 25 October 2016 Revised: 19 April 2017 Accepted: 27 April 2017 Published: 15 August 2017 Address correspondence to K.A. McAllister, Program Administrator, Genes, Environment, and Health Branch, Division of E...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
This article focuses on the ongoing trials of drugs targeting specific hallmarks of gastric and gastroesophageal cancers, including oncogene addiction proliferative pathways (fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 amplified tumors), stem cell inhibition, apoptotic induction through claudin inhibitors, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition. In developing novel therapeutics in treatment of patients with gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas, parallel research efforts to refine target population and biomarkers are crucial, and targeting the tumor genomics and microenvironment may be key in improving overall survival.
Source: Hematology Oncology Clinics of North America - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017 Source:Stem Cell Reports Author(s): Mathias Bernhardt, Daniel Novak, Yassen Assenov, Elias Orouji, Nathalie Knappe, Kasia Weina, Maike Reith, Lionel Larribere, Christoffer Gebhardt, Christoph Plass, Viktor Umansky, Jochen Utikal A point mutation in the BRAF gene, leading to a constitutively active form of the protein, is present in 45%–60% of patients and acts as a key driver in melanoma. Shortly after therapy induction, resistance to MAPK pathway-specific inhibitors develops, indicating that pathway inhibition is circumvented by epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we mimicke...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Authors: Cuyàs E, Corominas-Faja B, Muñoz-San Martín M, Martin-Castillo B, Lupu R, Brunet J, Bosch-Barrera J, Menendez JA Abstract Denosumab, a monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), might be a novel preventative therapy for BRCA1-mutation carriers at high risk of developing breast cancer. Beyond its well-recognized bone-targeted activity impeding osteoclastogenesis, denosumab has been proposed to interfere with the cross-talk between RANKL-producing sensor cells and cancer-initiating RANK+ responder cells that reside within premalignant tissues...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
This article focuses on the ongoing trials of drugs targeting specific hallmarks of gastric and gastroesophageal cancers, including oncogene addiction proliferative pathways (fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 amplified tumors), stem cell inhibition, apoptotic induction through claudin inhibitors, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition. In developing novel therapeutics in treatment of patients with gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas, parallel research efforts to refine target population and biomarkers are crucial, and targeting the tumor genomics and microenvironment may be key in improving overall survival.
Source: Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Recently high-resolution, noninvasive, multimodality in-vivo molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, CT and MRI, employing fusion algorithms has revolutionized personalized medicine. However, specific radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, and other cognitive impairments still remain in developmental phase. Currently, multimodality fusion neuroimaging is utilized for the determination of: pharmacokinetics and pre-clinical development of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs); i...
Source: Current Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research
Abstract Sumoylation is a covalent protein posttranslational modification that conjugates the small ubiquitin-like peptide SUMO to substrate. Sumoylation is critically implicated in multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis, etc. Therefore, it is not surprising that dysregulation of sumoylation has been implicated in tumorigenesis and different types of cancer were found to be addicted to functional sumoylation pathway. The potential role for sumoylation as a therapeutic target in caner is emerging. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regardin...
Source: Current Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Mol Med Source Type: research
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