Lab notes: from zero aliens to a whopping prime, 2018 is already racking up the digits

We ’re going to start big: with over 23m digits. That’s right, not even a week into 2018 and records have already tumbled at the discovery of thelargest prime number ever to be found - less than a year after its predecessor. It ’s exciting, it a math-sy sort of way, but for my money the most intriguing story this week was the genetic analysis of an ice age baby girl which has revealeda new group of Native Americans: the ancient Beringians. One of our experts also unpackedwhat the ancient DNA discovery tells us about Native American ancestry, and it ’s a fascinating read. A less pleasing genetic revelation (well, for those of us who enjoyed a sherry or two this Christmas) is the suggestion thatalcohol can cause irreversible genetic damage to stem cells. Scientists made the discovery while trying to understand the link between drinking and cancer. On the plus side, there has beena big breakthrough in the quest to find an effective, non-addictive alternative to opioid painkillers– some much-needed good news as the global opioid addiction crisis worsens. Finally, it’s bad news, but so damn interesting: an analysis of ‘Tabby’s star’ (also known as KIC 8462852) has shown thatthere ’s no alien megastructure around it. Still, it ’s early days yet: let’s see where the hunt for alien life goes in 2018.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Science Source Type: news

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Sal-like 4 (SALL4) is a nuclear factor central to the maintenance of stem cell pluripotency and is a key component in hepatocellular carcinoma, a malignancy with no effective treatment. In cancer cells, SALL4 associates with nucleosome remodeling deacetylase (NuRD) to silence tumor-suppressor genes, such as PTEN. Here, we determined the...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research
We presently forget 98% of everything we experience. That will go away in favor of perfect, controllable, configurable memory. Skills and knowledge will become commodities that can be purchased and installed. We will be able to feel exactly as we wish to feel at any given time. How we perceive the world will be mutable and subject to choice. How we think, the very fundamental basis of the mind, will also be mutable and subject to choice. We will merge with our machines, as Kurzweil puts it. The boundary between mind and computing device, between the individual and his or her tools, will blur. Over the course of the ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: February 2018Source: Japanese Dental Science Review, Volume 54, Issue 1Author(s): Yasumasa Kato, Toyonobu Maeda, Atsuko Suzuki, Yuh BabaSummaryInitial studies of cancer metabolism in the early 1920s found that cancer cells were phenotypically characterized by aerobic glycolysis, in that these cells favor glucose uptake and lactate production, even in the presence of oxygen. This property, called the Warburg effect, is considered a hallmark of cancer. The mechanism by which these cells acquire aerobic glycolysis has been uncovered. Acidic extracellular fluid, secreted by cancer cells, induces a malignant p...
Source: Japanese Dental Science Review - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
Authors: Türker Şener L, Güven C, Şener A, Adin Çinar S, Solakoğlu S, Albeniz I Abstract Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in females and the second most common cause of cancer mortality after lung cancer. Cancer stem cells represent a novel approach to target cancer and reduce cancer recurrence and metastasis. Many patients with breast cancer continue to smoke after receiving their diagnosis. Nicotine is a key factor in tobacco addiction and also changes some cellular functions, such as activation of mitogenic pathways, angiogenesis and cell proliferation. In the present study, th...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
This study indicates that YAP/TAZ couples cell proliferation with a metabolism suited for DNA replication and facilitates escape from oncogene-induced senescence. We speculate that this activity might be relevant during the initial phases of tumour progression or during experimental stem cell reprogramming induced by YAP.
Source: EMBO Journal - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cancer, Metabolism Articles Source Type: research
hiozawa Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is the most common and painful complication in patients with bone metastases. It causes a significant reduction in patient quality of life. Available analgesic treatments for CIBP, such as opioids that target the central nervous system, come with severe side effects as well as the risk of abuse and addiction. Therefore, alternative treatments for CIBP are desperately needed. Although the exact mechanisms of CIBP have not been fully elucidated, recent studies using preclinical models have demonstrated the role of the bone marrow microenvironment (e.g., osteoclasts, osteoblasts, ma...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
"Alcohol and endogenous aldehydes damage chromosomes and mutate stem cells"Juan I. Garaycoechea, Gerry P. Crossan, Fr édéric Langevin, Lee Mulderrig, Sandra Louzada,  Fentang Yang, Guillaume Guilbaud, Naomi Park, Sophie Roerink, Serena Nik-Zainal, Michael R.Stratton&Ketan J. Patel   Nature doi:10.1038/nature25154This pay-walled article, published in "Nature," presents fresh evidence that alcohol can damage chromosomes and cause mutations. If you don't have a zillion dollars to spare, The American Cancer Society has put together a layman's version of the subjecthere....
Source: Addiction Inbox - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2017 Source:Cancer Cell Author(s): Érika Cosset, Sten Ilmjärv, Valérie Dutoit, Kathryn Elliott, Tami von Schalscha, Maria F. Camargo, Alexander Reiss, Toshiro Moroishi, Laetitia Seguin, German Gomez, Jung-Soon Moo, Olivier Preynat-Seauve, Karl-Heinz Krause, Hervé Chneiweiss, Jann N. Sarkaria, Kun-Liang Guan, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Sara M. Weis, Paul S. Mischel, David A. Cheresh While molecular subtypes of glioblastoma (GBM) are defined using gene expression and mutation profiles, we identify a unique subpopulation based on addiction to the high-affini...
Source: Cancer Cell - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017 Source:Japanese Dental Science Review Author(s): Yasumasa Kato, Toyonobu Maeda, Atsuko Suzuki, Yuh Baba Initial studies of cancer metabolism in the early 1920s found that cancer cells were phenotypically characterized by aerobic glycolysis, in that these cells favor glucose uptake and lactate production, even in the presence of oxygen. This property, called the Warburg effect, is considered a hallmark of cancer. The mechanism by which these cells acquire aerobic glycolysis has been uncovered. Acidic extracellular fluid, secreted by cancer cells, induces a malignant phen...
Source: Japanese Dental Science Review - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
Conclusions: These new resources offer substantial advances to classical toxicity testing paradigms by including genetically sensitive individuals that may inform toxicity risks for sensitive subpopulations. Both in vivo and complementary in vitro resources provide platforms with which to reduce uncertainty by providing population-level data around biological variability. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1274 Received: 25 October 2016 Revised: 19 April 2017 Accepted: 27 April 2017 Published: 15 August 2017 Address correspondence to K.A. McAllister, Program Administrator, Genes, Environment, and Health Branch, Division of E...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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