NIH discovery brings stem cell therapy for eye disease closer to the clinic

(NIH/National Eye Institute) Scientists at the National Eye Institute report that tiny tube-like protrusions called primary cilia on cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) -- a layer of cells in the back of the eye -- are essential for the survival of the retina's light-sensing photoreceptors. The discovery has advanced efforts to make stem cell-derived RPE for transplantation into patients with geographic atrophy, otherwise known as dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the US.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Sylvia J. Gasparini, Sílvia Llonch, Oliver Borsch, Marius AderAbstractThe mammalian retina displays no intrinsic regenerative capacities, therefore retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or retinitis pigmentosa (RP) result in a permanent loss of the light-sensing photoreceptor cells. The degeneration of photoreceptors leads to vision impairment and, in later stages, complete blindness. Several therapeutic strategies have been developed to slow down or prevent further retinal...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
Abstract The availability of noninvasive high-resolution imaging technology, the immune-suppressive nature of the subretinal space, and the existence of surgical techniques that permit transplantation surgery to be a safe procedure all render the eye an ideal organ in which to begin cell-based therapy in the central nervous system. A number of early stage clinical trials are underway to assess the safety and feasibility of cell-based therapy for retinal blindness. Cell-based therapy using embryonic stem cell-derived differentiated cells (e.g., retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)), neural progenitor cells, photorecept...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
AbstractRetinal degeneration diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, affect millions of people worldwide and are major causes of irreversible blindness. Effective treatments for retinal degeneration, including drug therapy, gene augmentation or transplantation approaches, have been widely investigated. Nevertheless, more research should be dedicated to therapeutic methods to improve future clinical treatments. Recently, with the rapid development of genome-editing technology, gene therapy has become a potentially effective treatment for retinal degeneration diseases. A clustered regular...
Source: Human Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This study demonstrates that small peptide domains derived from native protein amelogenin can be utilized to construct a mineral layer on damaged human enamel in vitro. Six groups were prepared to carry out remineralization on artificially created lesions on enamel: (1) no treatment, (2) Ca2+ and PO43- only, (3) 1100 ppm fluoride (F), (4) 20 000 ppm F, (5) 1100 ppm F and peptide, and (6) peptide alone. While the 1100 ppm F sample (indicative of common F content of toothpaste for homecare) did not deliver F to the thinly deposited mineral layer, high F test sample (indicative of clinical varnish treatment) formed mainly C...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This studycounters that notion, and the findings may suggest that many senior citizens remain more cognitively and emotionally intact than commonly believed. "We found that older people have similar ability to make thousands of hippocampal new neurons from progenitor cells as younger people do. We also found equivalent volumes of the hippocampus (a brain structure used for emotion and cognition) across ages. Nevertheless, older individuals had less vascularization and maybe less ability of new neurons to make connections. It is possible that ongoing hippocampal neurogenesis sustains human-specific cognitive fun...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Stem cell therapy restored some vision to two patients with a common cause of blindness called age-related macular degeneration, U.K. doctors say. Stem cells from a human embryo were converted into a patch of a specific type of eye cell and grown...
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - Category: General Medicine Source Type: news
Abstract A major cause for vision impairment and blindness in industrialized countries is the loss of the light-sensing retinal tissue in the eye. Photoreceptor damage is one of the main characteristics found in retinal degeneration diseases, such as Retinitis Pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. The lack of effective therapies to stop photoreceptor loss together with the absence of significant intrinsic regeneration in the human retina converts such degenerative diseases into permanent conditions that are currently irreversible. Cell replacement by means of photoreceptor transplantation has been propos...
Source: Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Retinal degenerative diseases, which include age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, mostly affect the elderly population and are the most common cause of decreased quality of vision or even blindness. So far, there is no satisfactory treatment protocol to prevent, stop, or cure these disorders. A great hope and promise for patients suffering from retinal diseases is represented by stem cell-based therapy that could replace diseased or missing retinal cells and support regeneration. In this respect, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be obtained from...
Source: Cell Transplantation - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Transplant Source Type: research
This report captures the state of the research community in a nutshell: progress in the sense that ever more scientists are willing to make the treatment of aging the explicit goal of their research, but, unfortunately, there is still a long way to go in improving the nature of that research. It is still near entirely made up of projects that cannot possibly produce a robust and large impact on human life span. The only course of action likely to extend life by decades in the near future is implementation of the SENS vision for rejuvenation therapies - to repair the molecular damage that causes aging. Everything else on th...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, DNAm of multiple disease-related genes are strongly linked to mortality outcomes. The recently established epigenetic clock (DNAm age) has received growing attention as an increasing number of studies have uncovered it to be a proxy of biological ageing and thus potentially providing a measure for assessing health and mortality. Intriguingly, we targeted mortality-related DNAm changes and did not find any overlap with previously established CpGs that are used to determine the DNAm age. Our findings are in line with evidence, suggesting that DNAm involved in ageing or health-related outcomes are mostly...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
More News: Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) | Biology | Blindness | Opthalmology | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Transplants | Vitamin A