Endothelial permeability, LDL deposition, and cardiovascular risk factors —a review
AbstractEarly atherosclerosis features functional and structural changes in the endothelial barrier function that affect the traffic of molecules and solutes between the vessel lumen and the vascular wall. Such changes are mechanistically related to the development of atherosclerosis. Proatherogenic stimuli and cardiovascular risk factors, such as dyslipidaemias, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, all increase endothelial permeability sharing a common signalling denominator: an imbalance in the production/disposal of reactive oxygen species (ROS), broadly termed oxidative stress. Mostly as a consequence of the activation of enzymatic systems leading to ROS overproduction, proatherogenic factors lead to a pro-inflammatory status that translates in changes in gene expression and functional rearrangements, including changes in the transendothelial transport of molecules, leading to the deposition of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and the subsequent infiltration of circulating leucocytes in the intima. In this review, we focus on such early changes in atherogenesis and on the concept that proatherogenic stimuli and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, by altering the endothelial barrier properties, co-ordinately trigger the accumulation of LDL in the intima and ultimately plaque formation.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can convert fatty acids and glucose into heat, exhibiting the potential to combat obesity and diabetes. The mass and activity of BAT gradually diminishes with aging. As a newly found regulator of gene expression, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) exhibit a wide range of functions in life processes. However, whether long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) involves in BAT dysfunction with aging is still unclear. Here, using RNA-sequencing technology, we identified 3237 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and 1312 lncRNAs as differentially expressed in BAT of 10-months-old mice compared with 6- to 8-week-old. The protein-prot...
ConclusionsPatients with CMS were more likely to present with increased comorbidities. Patients with CMS undergoing CABG were at risk for worse short ‐term secondary postoperative outcomes and reduced long‐term survival. The data supports the need for further investigation for risk reduction surrounding operative revascularization.
Researchers assessed the sitting habits of older, post-menopausal women and found that those who spent more time seated, and were either overweight or obese, had a higher risk of heart disease and diabetes.
ConclusionsTo our knowledge, no study has examined the detailed dynamic changes in glucose and insulin homeostasis in this number of participants undergoing SG in relation to incretin hormones GIP and GLP-1. This current study supports the role of SG for the treatment of obesity-related glucose dysregulation.
ConclusionsThe results support that a walking exercise program with self-selected intensity improved insulin resistance in obese women. Thus, exercise programs with self-selected intensity seem to be an interesting alternative for improving health and preventing diseases.
ConclusionsOur study provides fundamental insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying POMC neuron malprogramming in obesogenic contexts.Graphical abstract