Water, Water Everywhere, Costs More Than You Might Think

Credit: Water.orgBy Daniel Waldron and Zehra ShabbirWASHINTON DC, Dec 18 2017 (IPS)Without reliable access to water, human beings cannot survive. Yet 3 out of 10 people do not have a safely managed water supply, and 6 out of 10 lack safely managed sanitation. Over 2 billion people drank water that was fecally contaminated in 2015, and the World Bank estimates that the annual cost of poor sanitation is in excess of $260 billion annually. The technologies that can address these shortages are not complicated, but their upfront cost remains unaffordable to many low-income families. In Indonesia, for example, connection to piped water systems averages $150, while a flush toilet can cost around $250. For comparison, 11 percent of Indonesians live on less than $27 per month.Microfinance offers an affordable, accessible remedy to these market barriers, but water and sanitation are not traditional targets for microcredit. Loans for water supply and sanitation (WSS) improvements require technical knowledge that many financial institutions lack, and the improved water or sanitation facilities do not usually generate cash flows that repay the loan.WSS loans often produce economic impacts, but they are more diffuse, easier seen in aggregate: the child that does not fall ill, the hours not spent walking to a well. Yet as we have seen with the financing of solar products, there may be room for a broader role in financing assets that improve quality of life and alleviate human misery. By tha...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Development & Aid Gender Global Headlines Health Poverty & SDGs TerraViva United Nations Water & Sanitation Source Type: news

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Authors: Monferrer-Adsuara C, Freiría-Barreiro R, Montero Hernández J PMID: 32063419 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Archivos de la Sociedad Espanola de Oftalmologia - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The adult strabismus surgery was three times more frequent than the children strabismus surgery. The third of the adults that were operated on were ≥60 years. The cranial nerve palsies were the most frequent diagnosis. Adjustable sutures were rarely used. Good outcomes were obtained in most of the patients at the end of follow-up. PMID: 32063418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Archivos de la Sociedad Espanola de Oftalmologia - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol Source Type: research
In conclusion, soil metabolomics offers the potential to reveal the complex molecular networks and metabolic pathways operating in the soil microbial community and a means of evaluating soil function. Further work is now required to benchmark soil metabolomes under a wide range of management regimes so that they can be used for the quantitative assessment of soil quality.Graphical abstract
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: Saudi Journal of Biological SciencesAuthor(s): Masoumeh Rezaei-Moshaei, Ali Bandehagh, Ali Dehestani, Ali Pakdin-Parizi, Majid GolkarAbstractPlant ribosome–inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N–glycosidases which inhibit protein synthesis through depurination of the ribosomal RNA sequence. Type II RIPs are heterodimer proteins which can bind to cell surfaces. The cytotoxicity of these RIPs is different. Sambucus spp. are a rich source of RIP proteins with different properties. In the present study, a type II RIP was isolated from S. ebulus plant that grows...
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: Journal of Thermal BiologyAuthor(s): Chao Wen, Ying Liu, Yuanwei Ye, Zhengguo Tao, Zongjia Cheng, Tian Wang, Yanmin ZhouAbstractIn order to investigate the effects of dietary ginger extract (GE) enriched in gingerols on broilers under heat stress (HS) from 21 to 42 days of age, a total of 144 Ross 308 male broilers were randomly allocated to three groups with six replicates of eight broilers per replicate. Broilers in the control group were raised at 22 °C and fed a basal diet, and broilers in the other two groups were raised under cyclic HS (34 °C from...
Source: Journal of Thermal Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
This study aims to observe the effect on urine and sweat excretion levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in healthy men in a maximum incremental test until exhaustion and repeated exposure to heat.Methodstwenty-nine adult men divided into control group (CG; n = 14) and experimental group (EG; n = 15) performing two maximum tests until exhaustion in normothermia (22 °C) and hyperthermia (42 °C). EG experienced 9 sessions of heat exposure at high temperatures (100 °C) (HEHT). After the nine sessions, the initial tests were repeated in both groups. Urine samples were collected before and after each te...
Source: Journal of Thermal Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In this study, we have analysed the application of the same method to predict superfamilies. Here, in this method, the twilight zone protein sequence is threaded with the 3D1D profiles of the known protein superfamilies library. In addition, weightage for the predicted secondary structure (PSS) is also employed. The performance of the method is benchmarked with twilight zone sequences. In the benchmarks, 62 and 65 percentages of superfamily predictions are obtained with GOR IV and NPS@ predicted secondary structures, respectively. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves indicate that the method is sensitive in predi...
Source: Journal of Structural Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our results suggested that AjPGRP-S serves as a pattern recognition molecule involved in the immune response towards various pathogenic infections.
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In this study, whole-body transcriptome sequencing of juvenile betta fish generated 4.457 GB of clean data and a total of 71,775 unigenes using the Illumina HiSeq4000 platform. These unigenes were functionally classified using 7 functional databases, yielding 45,316 NR (63.14%), 47,287 NT (65.88%), 39,105 Swiss-Prot (54.48%), 16,492 COG (22.98%), 37,694 KEGG (52.52%), 4,506 GO (6.28%), and 35,374 Interpro (49.28%) annotated unigenes. Furthermore, we also detected 13,834 SSRs distributed on 10,636 unigenes and 49,589 predicted CDSs. Based on KEGG analysis, five innate immune pathways (997 unigenes) were reported, includin...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
The White House released the President’s Budget Request for fiscal year (FY) 2021 on February 10, 2020. The budget proposes large cuts for science for the fourth consecutive year. The $4.8 trillion budget framework calls for cuts to most federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The proposal would provide $1.3 trillion for discretionary programs, including $590 billion for non-defense spending - the source for m...
Source: Public Policy Reports - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: news
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