Study prompts new ideas on cancers' origins

(Washington University School of Medicine) Cancer therapies often target cells that grow and divide rapidly, such as stem cells, but in studying how stomach cancers occur, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis found that even when the stomach isn't able to make stem cells, other cells in the stomach can begin to divide and contribute to precancerous lesions.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Abstract Gastric cancer displays marked molecular heterogeneity with aggressive behavior and treatment resistance. Therefore, good in vitro models that encompass unique subtypes are urgently needed for precision medicine development. Here, we have established a primary gastric cancer organoid (GCO) biobank that comprises normal, dysplastic, cancer, and lymph node metastases (n = 63) from 34 patients, including detailed whole-exome and transcriptome analysis. The cohort encompasses most known molecular subtypes (including EBV, MSI, intestinal/CIN, and diffuse/GS, with CLDN18-ARHGAP6 or CTNND1-ARHGAP26 fus...
Source: Cell Stem Cell - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Cell Stem Cell Source Type: research
Abstract BMI-1 (B-lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1) is a key protein partner in polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) that helps in maintaining the integrity of the complex. It is also a key player in ubiquitination of histone H2A which affects gene expression pattern involved in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, growth, DNA repair, apoptosis and senescence. In many cancers, Overexpression of BMI1correlates with advanced stages of disease, aggressive clinicopathological behavior, poor prognosis resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. BMI1 is emerging as a key player in EMT, chemo-resistance...
Source: Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Gene Source Type: research
ConclusionHA-G5 PAMAM-Au-METase significantly suppressed tumor growth of GC by targeted damaging the mitochondrial function of CD44(+) gastric CSCs.
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Ibuprofen reduces cell proliferation through inhibiting Wnt/β catenin signaling pathway in Gastric Cancer Stem Cells. Cell Biol Int. 2018 Mar 07;: Authors: Akrami H, Moradi B, Farahani DB, Mehdizadeh K Abstract Nowadays, most studies focused on cancer stem cells (CSCs) through their abilities to cause tumorigenicity, drug resistance, and cancer recurrence. On the other side, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been taken into consideration because of cheapness and availability. For the reasons mentioned above, we have studied the effect of ibuprofen as an NSAID on CSCs derived from...
Source: Cell Biology International - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Biol Int Source Type: research
The future of the treatment of cancer will be, must be, dominated by classes of therapy that can be easily and cost-effective applied to many different types of cancer. Such therapies can only exist as a result of targeting mechanisms that are shared by many or all types of cancer. It must also be challenging or impossible for cancerous cells to do without these mechanisms. The biggest issue in cancer research over the past few decades, in my opinion, is the specificity of therapies, the amount of time and resources poured into efforts to produce treatments that can only work on one type or a few types of cancer, and that ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
Discussion of advocacy for the cause is a usual feature of our community, as we try things and attempt to make progress in persuading the world that rejuvenation research is plausible, practical, and necessary. There are more people engaged in advocacy now than at any time in the past decade, and so discussions of strategy come up often. New ventures kicked off in 2017 include the Geroscience online magazine, and among the existing ventures the LEAF / volunteers seem to be hitting their stride. The mainstream media continues to be as much a hindrance as a help, and where it is a help you will usually find Aubre...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: High infiltration of TAMs was related to aggressive behavior, associated with aberrant expression of CSC markers, and an independent worse prognostic factor in GC. Targeting TAMs may be a potential treatment strategy for GC, including patients with recurrence.
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
In this study, we discovered that residual cancer cells following 5Fu treatment have elevated expression of hedgehog target genes GLI1 and GLI2, suggestive of hedgehog (Hh) signaling activation. Hh signaling, a pathway essential for embryonic development, is an important regulator for putative cancer stem cells/residual cancer cells. We found that high GLI1/GLI2 expression is associated with some features of putative cancer stem cells, such as increased side population. We demonstrated that GLI2 knockdown sensitized gastric cancer cells to 5Fu treatment, decreased ABCG2 expression, and reduced side population. Elevated GLI...
Source: Journal of Genetics and Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Authors: Ji R, Zhang X, Qian H, Gu H, Sun Z, Mao F, Yan Y, Chen J, Liang Z, Xu W Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a critical component of the tumor microenvironment. Upon distinct pathological stimulus, MSCs show phenotypic and functional changes. Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer‑related deaths worldwide. The roles and mechanisms of MSCs in gastric cancer have not been well characterized. In the present study, we investigated the roles of MSCs in the malignant transformation from gastritis to gastric cancer using an N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric cancer ...
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
ConclusionsAs expected, the CGCSCs indeed showed extremely invasive and metastatic properties. They also exhibited distinctive mesenchymal phenotypes, high self-renewal, proliferative capabilities, tumor induction and low apoptosis. Interestingly, CGCSCs show small cell-size than TGCSCs (tissue gastric cancer stem cells). The findings might help us to understand the biological characteristic of CGCSCs deeply, and give light to strategies for cancer therapies.
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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