Neurology in Africa

"Ex Africa semper aliquid novi [Out of Africa always something new]," wrote the Roman historian Pliny the elder. Neurology in Africa is no different, with the recent emergence of new diseases ranging from HIV to konzo. Historically, neurology in Africa has been included under the heading tropical neurology or neurology in the tropics and is well-reviewed by Poser and Poser.1 Some of the earliest descriptions of the more common neurologic disorders (ND), including stroke, migraine, paralysis, and seizures, come from ancient Egypt and Greece. These accounts include diseases like lathyrism, which occurs in temperate as well as tropical climates, and was described by Herodotus (61 bc). More recent descriptions of tropical neurologic diseases, mostly infections, coincide with the exploration and colonization of the tropics. In 1803, Winterbottom described sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) in Sierra Leone; its cause was later elucidated by Bruce2 in 1895. An example of an imported disease is the neuropathy of leprosy described in Norway by Danielssen and Boeck in 1848, and its cause elucidated there by Armauer Hansen3 in 1873. The subspecialty of tropical neurology came into being in the 1960s. It was led in Africa by neurologists Henri Collomb and Michael Dumas in Senegal; Neville Proctor (neuropathologist) and J.E. Cosnett in South Africa; George Monekosso and Benjamin Osuntokun4 in Nigeria; John Spillane5 in Africa and Wales; and Redda Tekle-Haimanot in Ethiopia. Sev...
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Lee YH, Jang HW, Park CH, An SM, Lee EK, Choi BM, Noh GJ Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim of intraoperative fluid therapy is to avoid both hypovolemia and hypervolemia; however, the patient's exact volume status is difficult to determine during surgery. Fluid optimization guided by stroke volume variation (SVV) has been widely used in patients undergoing major open abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in plasma volume before and after surgery following SVV-guided fluid therapy. METHODS: Patients were randomly allocated into one of two groups according to the SVV criteria for...
Source: Minerva Anestesiologica - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Minerva Anestesiol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical JournalAuthor(s): Anroop B. Nair, Bandar E. Al-Dhubiab, Jigar Shah, Shery Jacob, Saraiya Vismay, Mahesh Attimarad, Nagaraja SreeHarsha, Sabah H. Akrawi, Tamer M. ShehataAbstractAdministration of almotriptan as an oral therapy is largely limited because of poor aqueous solubility and rather low bioavailability. The aim of present investigation was to formulate oral mucoadhesive film of almotriptan to improve the drug delivery and desired therapeutic effects. Placebo films (F1-F8) were prepared by varying the concentrations of Proloc 15 (7.5% w/v-...
Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Nocardiosis is an uncommon infection caused by ubiquitous environmental aerobic gram-positive filamentous bacteria, present in soil and water. Skin and lungs are usually the main targets of localized infections. Rarely, disseminated forms can occur in immunocompromised individuals. A 63-year-old man with a history of late-onset asthma and nasal and sinus polyposis treated with oral low-dose corticosteroid regimen presented with fever, headache, myalgia, skin erythematous plaques, and pustules. Brain MRI revealed multiple abscesses and pachymeningitis. 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed to assess the extent of the infection. Cuta...
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Interesting Images Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn the largest analysis of transplanted donor hearts with transient LVSD, 1 in 4 had RWMAs on the initial TTE; but this was not associated with adverse post-transplant outcomes. Donor hearts with initial LVSD should be pursued irrespective of TTS-like hypokinesis or other RWMAs.Graphical abstract
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluate whether thrombocytopenia following CPB is an independent risk factor for post-operative morbidity and mortality.MethodsWe retrospectively evaluated 1,364 patients requiring CPB at University of Colorado Hospital between January 2011 and May 2016. Platelet nadir, absolute change in platelets, and percent change in platelets were modeled as continuous variables. Patients with post-operative thrombocytopenia (defined a nadir
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: During the last century, AADRs among males declined more slowly than among females. Although the gap diminished in recent decades, exploration of social and behavioral factors may inform interventions that could further reduce death rates among males. PMID: 31804898 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Public Health Reports - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rep Source Type: research
Authors: de Montalembert M, Tshilolo L, Allali S Abstract As more children are appropriately being diagnosed, the burden of sickle cell disease is increasing greatly in Africa and in high-resource countries such as the United States and Europe. Early management is mandatory, but newborn screening is not implemented everywhere. Point-of-care testing devices are increasingly being used in low-resource countries, showing good sensitivity and specificity. Because the diagnosis is often traumatic for the families, the announcement should be made by an experienced person. The development of care networks is urgently requ...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research
Authors: Cohen AT, Hunt BJ Abstract The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have transformed the management of thrombotic disorders. Large clinical trials have demonstrated that DOACs can replace vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in the 2 existing major indications for anticoagulation: the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation and the acute treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE); this literature is widely known. In this article, we will concentrate on the less well-discussed benefits of the use of DOACs-using low doses as primary and secondary prophylaxis in both venous and arterial thro...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research
Authors: Leebeek FWG, Muslem R Abstract Chronic heart failure (HF) is a growing health problem, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are nowadays an important treatment option for patients with end-stage HF not only as a bridging tool to heart transplantation but also, as a permanent therapy for end-stage HF (destination therapy). The use of LVAD is associated with a high risk for bleeding complications and thromboembolic events, including pump thrombosis and ischemic stroke. Bleeding is the most frequent complication, occurring in 30% to 60% of patients, b...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research
Authors: Kimpton M, Siegal DM Abstract A 77-year-old man with atrial fibrillation and a CHA2DS2Vasc score of 6 for hypertension, age, diabetes, and previous stroke is brought to the emergency department with decreased level of consciousness. He is anticoagulated with rivaroxaban (a direct oral factor Xa inhibitor [FXaI]) and received his last dose about 4 hours before presentation. Urgent computed tomography of the head shows intracerebral hemorrhage. Because of his previous stroke, the patient's family is concerned about treating the bleed with pharmacological agents that may increase the risk of stroke. What are ...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research
More News: African Health | Brain | Headache | History of Medicine | Leprosy | Migraine | Neurology | Senegal Health | Sleeping Sickness | Stroke