FDA seeks new ways to unhook smokers

If your New Year ’s resolution is to quit smoking, good luck: It’s one of the most difficult goals to achieve. In fact, only 15 percent of people who try to quit smoking are successful six months later.  But the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced plans to help increase that success rate by advocat ing for new nicotine-replacement therapies to help smokers end their addiction. The announcement came as tobacco producers last week began running mandatory ads outlining the negative…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news

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The application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to prevent relapse in alcohol addiction is currently being evaluated. However, how rTMS may influence the related brain processes is far from clear. Here we wanted to investigate whether baseline grey matter volume (GMV) can predict relapse and whether 15 accelerated high-frequency (HF)- rTMS sessions may influence GMV in areas related to relapse. Voxel based morphometric (VBM) measurements were used to compare baseline GMV of twenty-two detoxified hospitalized alcohol-dependent patients with 22 age and gender matched healthy control subjects.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
In order to improve the current treatment of addictive disorders, noninvasive neuromodulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a brain area crucially involved in executive functioning (EF), has gained attention. EF is impaired in addictive disorders, hence non-invasive stimulation of the DLPFC may lead to changes in EF and thereby improved treatment outcomes. An overview of the effects of non-invasive neuromodulation on EF in addictive disorders will be provided in this review. The current review is conducted and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analy...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Transcranial direct current brain stimulation (tDCS) has recently emerged as a novel noninvasive alternative for treating food addiction via modulating cortical excitability. Unfortunately, the action mechanism of tDCS has not been precisely defined as complex neurochemical pathways are involved in its molecular effects, and of particular interest are those related to its relation with energy metabolism in the brain. Recently, it was proposed that tDCS may be associated with increased permeability for ions as well as small and large molecules, thus suggesting the interplay between elemental and molecular changes.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
We present a series of experiments demonstrating enhancement of cognitive control in humans. First, we will show results from chronic striatal DBS patients, where stimulation enhances control and pre-frontal theta oscillations associated with control. Second, we will present results from the TRANSFORM DBS closed-loop stimulation program.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
To this date, no treatment exists that effectively and completely reduces drug craving and consumption in cocaine addiction. RTMS has shown promise as a possible treatment. The main goal of this study was to determine if rTMS improves clinical outcome after 2 weeks of treatment in cocaine addicts, and the neural correlates of the effect. We are currently performing an RCT with double-blind sham in crack-cocaine addicts (CA) at the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City. To date, we have recruited 30 CA.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Tabaquism is a risk factor for up to 30 different diseases and the World Health Organization estimates that 7 million deaths per year are caused by nicotine addiction. Nevertheless, conventional treatments have low success rates and new therapeutic approaches, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), have started to be explored in the last two decades.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may affect neuro-adaptations associated with addiction, thereby influencing drug craving and intake. Previous pre-clinical and clinical evidence suggest a tonically reduced functioning of the mesolimbic dopamine system leading to hypothesize that ‘boosting’ the hypofunctional system may yield clinical benefits. Here we show that rTMS reduces alcohol and cocaine intake in alcoholics and cocaine addicts. We investigated alcohol intake and dopamine transporter (DAT) availability by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Obese subjects can be considered “food addicted”. Since there is growing evidence for the role of deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS) in reducing craving for different addictions, we proposed high frequency (HF) dTMS as a mean to reduce food craving and body weight. To identify regional location of dTMS stimulation we presently measured the regional brain network centrality (degree centrality, DC), in resting-state fMRI brain patterns, to explore plastic changes associated with HF dTMS in obese patients.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
BACKGROUND: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique to modulate neuronal activity over specific brain areas related to multiples neuropsychiatric diseases. TMS and Deep TMS are promising tools to treat nicotine addiction. This prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial,study aims to evaluate the efficacy/safety of dTMS on smoking cessation, using H-ADD coil on activation parameters over prefrontal cortex and insula bilaterally.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Background: High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) generally induces motor cortical facilitation. However, no study has evaluated the effect of multiple rTMS sessions over the prefrontal cortex with cortical motor excitability measures in an addiction population. Here we test the hypothesis that multiple rTMS sessions over the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) will not change motor cortical excitability, as measured with TMS in chronic smokers.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
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