Disaggregating the mortality reductions due to cancer screening: model-based estimates from population-based data

AbstractThe mortality impact in cancer screening trials and population programs is usually expressed as a single hazard ratio or percentage reduction. This measure ignores the number/spacing of rounds of screening, and the location in follow-up time of the averted deaths vis-a-vis the first and last screens. If screening works as intended, hazard ratios are a strong function of the two Lexis time-dimensions. We show how the number and timing of the rounds of screening can be included in a model that specifies what each round of screening accomplishes. We show how this model can be used to disaggregate the observed reductions (i.e., make them time-and screening-history specific), and to project the impact of other regimens. We use data on breast cancer screening to illustrate this model, which we had already described in technical terms in a statistical journal. Using the numbers of invitations different cohorts received, we fitted the model to the age- and follow-up-year-specific numbers of breast cancer deaths in Funen, Denmark. From November 1993 onwards, women aged 50 –69 in Funen were invited to mammography screening every two years, while those in comparison regions were not. Under the proportional hazards model, the overall fitted hazard ratio was 0.82 (average reduction 18%). Using a (non-proportional-hazards) model that included the timing information, th e fitted reductions ranged from 0 to 30%, being largest in those Lexis cells that had received the grea...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

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Authors: Turhan E, Yasli G Abstract OBJECTIVE: The present study was performed to detect cancer risk of the midwifes and nurses playing central role in raising awareness in the society using Gail's model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample of the present cross sectional study consists of 750 volunteer midwifes and nurses in 2016. Breast cancer risk was calculated using the Gail Risk Assessment Tool. Perceived and calculated risk levels were compared. Descriptive statistics and Chi-Square analysis, t-test, Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis, the Logistic Regression Analysis were conducted. RESULTS: A mean of...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: P R Health Sci J Source Type: research
Clinical Significance of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 for Breast Cancer &Adenocarcinomas of Various Internal Organs and Alzheimer's Brain with Increased β-amyloid (1-42); Combined Use of Optimal Doses of Vitamin D3 and Taurine 3 times/day Has Significant Beneficial Effects of Anti-Cancer, Anti-Ischemic Heart, and Memory &Other Brain Problems By Significant Urinary Excretion of Viruses, Bacteria, and Toxic Metals &Substances. Acupunct Electrother Res. 2016;41(2):127-134 Authors: Omura Y Abstract Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) has a significant role in various cancers and Alzheime...
Source: Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Acupunct Electrother Res Source Type: research
A 35-year-old woman noticed a mass in her right breast and underwent a diagnostic workup, including a mammogram that revealed a 2.4-cm mass and ultrasound that showed two adjacent masses, as well as enlarged axillary lymph nodes.
Source: CancerNetwork - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: news
Although mammography (MG) has been widely used for breast cancer screening in the western world, over-diagnosis remains controversial. Milestone studies showed that ultrasound (US) was an effective primary screening test for breast cancer both in the western world and in China. US improves the sensitivity of screening in Chinese women who have denser breasts and develop breast cancer earlier than Caucasian counterparts, and is used as the primary imaging test in the hospital-based opportunistic screening among asymptomatic self-referred women.
Source: Medical Hypotheses - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
The distinction between benign and malignant papilloma of the breast through percutaneous needle biopsy can be difficult because of limited samples; the underestimation rate can be up to 25%. The aim of this study is to identify clinical and histological factors associated with underestimation, invasive ductal carcinoma, or ductal in-situ carcinoma (DCIS) of the breast found in surgical specimens from papillary lesions. This may contribute toward selection of patients for a follow-up strategy without the need for surgical excision. From a database of 3563 patients, we identified 85 with intraductal papilloma between 2007 a...
Source: European Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Research Papers: Breast Cancer Source Type: research
A new study found that individuals had a strong preference for cancer screening...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: Are we using the right metrics for CT lung screening? Faster MRI protocol avoids unneeded prostate biopsies Mammography compliance leads to other screening tests Breast cancer survivors don't get regular mammograms Cancer death rates continue to decline in U.S.
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
AbstractBackgroundThe Verona population-based breast cancer (BC) screening program provides biennial mammography to women aged 50 –69 years. Based on emerging evidence of enhanced detection, the program transitioned to digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) screening.MethodsThis is a prospective pilot evaluation of DBT with synthesised 2D mammography screening implemented during April 2015 –March 2017; the rate and characteristics of cancers detected at DBT screening were compared with those detected at the preceding digital mammography (DM) screening round (April 2013–March 2015) in the same screening p...
Source: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe found a very low upgrade rate to breast cancer when RS was found on CNB with or without associated HRL. Our results are consistent with other reported series. Our data do not support surgical excision for RS but rather close clinical follow-up for patients with RS on CNB.
Source: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Before his May 29 resignation, Missouri Gov. Eric Greitens signed a bill into...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: DBT plus DM finds 90% more cancer than mammo alone DBT improves diagnostic mammography, too ARRS: Added radiation exposure from DBT is within limits DBT improves breast cancer screening in young women FDA authorizes ACR to accredit DBT devices
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
h;r M Abstract BACKGROUND: In 1998, the Storting unanimously adopted the introduction of nationwide mammography screening in Norway. Mammography screening has been the subject of scientific debate, but there has been little research on the political arguments for a public screening programme. In this article I analyse the arguments put forward at that time for nationwide mammography screening. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A document analysis of proposals to the Storting was performed, and recommendations and minutes of debates in the Storting that dealt with nationwide mammography screening. The documents are from th...
Source: Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen Source Type: research
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