Asymmetric neuromodulation of motor circuits in Parkinson's disease: The role of subthalamic deep brain stimulation.

Asymmetric neuromodulation of motor circuits in Parkinson's disease: The role of subthalamic deep brain stimulation. Surg Neurol Int. 2017;8:261 Authors: Lizarraga KJ, Luca CC, De Salles A, Gorgulho A, Lang AE, Fasano A Abstract Whereas hemispheric dominance is well-established for appendicular motor control in humans, the evidence for dominance in axial motor control is still scarce. In Parkinson's disease (PD), unilateral (UL) onset of appendicular motor symptoms corresponds with asymmetric neurodegeneration predominantly affecting contralateral nigrostriatal circuits. Disease progression yields bilateral and axial motor symptoms but the initial appendicular asymmetry usually persists. Furthermore, there is evidence for hemispheric dominance for axial motor dysfunction in some of these patients. Dopaminergic medications improve appendicular symptoms but can also produce motor complications over time. Once these complications develop, bilateral (BL) deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nuclei (STN) can significantly improve appendicular symptoms while reducing medication doses and motor complications. Conversely, axial motor symptoms remain a significant source of disability, morbidity, and mortality for patients with PD. These axial symptoms do not necessarily improve with dopaminergic therapy, might not respond, and could even worsen after BL-DBS. In contrast to medications, DBS provides the opportunity to modify stimulation parameters for e...
Source: Surgical Neurology International - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

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Authors: Cabreira V, Massano J Abstract Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, and a significant increase in its prevalence in the past three decades has been documented. Environmental and genetic factors contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease, and 5% - 10% of cases have a monogenic cause. The diagnosis relies on clinical findings, supported by adequate testing. There is no absolute method to diagnose Parkinson's disease in vivo, except for genetic testing in specific circumstances, whose usefulness is limited to a minority of cases. New diagnostic criteria have been re...
Source: Acta Medica Portuguesa - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Med Port Source Type: research
Authors: Sato K, Aita N, Hokari Y, Kitahara E, Tani M, Izawa N, Hatori K, Nakamura R, Sasaki F, Sekimoto S, Jo T, Oyama G, Hatano T, Shimo Y, Iwamuro H, Umemura A, Hattori N, Fujiwara T Abstract Background: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is a surgical treatment to reduce the "off" state motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Postural instability is one of the major impairments, which induces disabilities of activities of daily living (ADLs). The effectiveness of STN-DBS for postural instability is unclear, and the effect of rehabilitation following STN-DBS has remained un...
Source: Parkinsons Disease - Category: Neurology Tags: Parkinsons Dis Source Type: research
Abstract Dystonia and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) are both hyperkinetic movement disorders. Dystonia arises most often spontaneously, although it may be seen after stroke, injury, or as a result of genetic causes. LID is associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), emerging as a consequence of chronic therapy with levodopa, and may be either dystonic or choreiform. LID and dystonia share important phenomenological properties and mechanisms. Both LID and dystonia are generated by an integrated circuit involving the cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. They also share dysregulation of striatal choliner...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research
We reported DEGs with a nominal p-value of 0.8. The network construction was created using blockwiseModules function for consideration of computer efficiency. The module detection criteria were as follows: minimum module size of 50, deepsplit of 4, and merge threshold of 0.25. The merged modules were then summarized with module eigengene (ME) correlations>0.75. MEs were defined by their first principal component and were labeled with different colors as module names in the Results section. After the modules were generated, we conducted different enrichment analysis to explore the functional interpretation of genes withi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion The key problem with the ND field is the lack of understanding in the events preceding the development of protein-based markers – such as Tau – currently used to diagnose NDs. By this stage, the diseases become more difficult to treat. SncRNAs play an important regulatory role in the maintenance of the homeostatic brain. Therefore, changes in their concentration levels can be indicative of mechanistic changes that could precede protein-based markers. One single sncRNA biomarker is unlikely to differentiate between diseases. However, a combination of sncRNA biomarkers could be illustrative of the me...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Introduction: Exaggerated neural synchrony in the beta band (13-30 Hz) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a pathophysiological marker in Parkinson's disease (PD), the attenuation of which is related to the improvement in bradykinesia. Neural closed-loop deep brain stimulation (NclDBS) for PD has shown promise over open-loop (ol)DBS paradigms in several studies. Various groups have succeeded in using beta frequency signals to drive NclDBS and in some cases, it has proved more effective than olDBS with respect to motor disability scores (UPDRS-III).
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a neurosurgical procedure commonly used for the management of severe movement disability in advanced Parkinson ’s disease (PD), but some patients experience debilitating psychiatric effects that have an uknown neural origin. Here we use animal models to uncover effects of DBS of the STN on the lateral habenula nucleus (LHb), a fast emerging controller of motivational and emotive behaviours, and a major sou rce of input to 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN).
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Background. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is considered a poor procedure to rescue someone with end stage of Parkinson disease (PD) and severe axial disability. DBS may be controversial when severe gait disturbances and balance issues are the striking features. Although severe axial disability is regarded a contraindication for this surgery in Parkinson disease, there are exist patients who can benefit from DBS
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
unt SK, Sağlam G Abstract The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is important for normal movement as well as in movement disorders. The STN is a target nuclei in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a standard surgical treatment for PD. Although DBS results in a significant reduction in motor disability, several negative side effects have been reported. Thus, to understand the side effects of DBS the connection of the STN should be well known. Therefore, the present study aims to re‑examine the STN with an emphasis on poorly‑ or un‑documented connections. Furthermore, the ...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) Source Type: research
adapted from Figure 3 (Koroshetz et al., 2018). Magnetic resonance angiography highlighting the vasculature in the human brain in high resolution, without the use of any contrast agent, on a 7T MRI scanner. Courtesy of Plimeni&Wald (MGH).[ed. note: here's a great summary onIf, how, and when fMRI goes clinical, by Dr. Peter Bandettini.]TheJournal of Neuroscience recently published a paywalled article onThe State of the NIH BRAIN Initiative.This paper reviewed the research and technology development funded by the “moonshot between our ears” [anewly coined phrase]. The program has yielded a raft ofpublications...
Source: The Neurocritic - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: blogs
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