Therapeutic Implications of the Genetic Landscape of Head and Neck Cancer
Large-scale sequencing studies of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have elucidated the genetic changes that characterize HNSCC. These findings have supported the development of therapeutic strategies that target key components of aberrant signaling pathways and immune dysregulation. Cumulative evidence suggests that these agents in combination with radiotherapy may have synergistic effects. This review highlights the predictive biomarkers that have been identified from HNSCC genomic studies and implications on the development of molecular-targeting agents that may effectively treat patients with HNSCC, especially when used in combination with radiation.
ConclusionTERT promoter mutations are most likely a late event in tumor development, occurring in a context of critically short telomeres, mostly in patients with oral cavity SCC.TERT levels, but notTERT promoter mutational status impact clinical outcome.
Contributor : Sandra SchmitzSeries Type : Expression profiling by genome tiling arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensTo investigate if cetuximab induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activation of cancer associated fibroblast (CAF) in the tumors of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).Cetuximab was administered for two weeks prior to surgery to 20 treatment-na ïve patients (CHIRON study). Five untreated patients were included as controls. Tumor biopsies were performed at baseline and before surgery. Gene expression profiles and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of the ...
This study aimed to identify the effects of an immune-related gene signature (IRGS) that can predict t...
(JAMA Network) Researchers for this observational study examined the association between the expansion of Medicaid coverage in some states after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed and the diagnosis and treatment of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The analysis included nearly 91,000 adults with newly diagnosed HNSCC who were identified from the National Cancer Database.
In this study, we used open-source software to investigate radiomic features that help distinguish malignant from benign and ENE from non-ENE lymph nodes. We have identified 89 features that can differentiate malignant from benign and 4 features that can differentiate ENE from non-ENE lymph nodes. Furthermore, we fed the significant features to a multilayer perceptron neural network to predict malignancy and ENE of lymph nodes and achieved 84% and 77% of accuracy in each task, respectively.
Conclusions: PD-L1 expression was positive in approximately 50% of high- grade carcinomas, which was similar to the level in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In patients with other cancers, it has been reported that an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody was more effective against tumors with higher PD-L1 expression. Therefore, it could be a possible new therapeutic option for patients with highly malignant parotid tumors that have a poor prognosis. PMID: 31944154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
ConclusionSalvage surgery leads to a substantial improvement in outcomes in head and neck cancers and should be the de facto standard of care in patients who are eligible for the same.
Conclusions: These data suggest that lack of HPV infection is associated with more prominent activation of Wnt/βCatenin signaling pathway and gain of stem-like traits in tobacco-related OSCCs. PMID: 31929745 [PubMed - in process]
British Journal of Cancer, Published online: 15 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41416-019-0719-8Pre-operative cellular dissociation grading in biopsies is highly predictive of post-operative tumour stage and patient outcome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a prevalent form of cancer with 5-years survival rates around 57%, and metastasis is a leading cause of mortality. Host-derived immunological factors that affect HNSCC tumor development and metastasis are not completely understood. We investigated the role of host-derived signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) during experimental HNSCC using an aggressive and metastatic HNSCC cell line, LY2, which was orthotopically injected into the buccal sulcus of wild type (WT) and STAT4 deficient (Stat4−/−) BALB/c mice. Necropsies performed at terminal sa...