Detecting Local Zika Virus Transmission in the Continental United States: A Comparison of Surveillance Strategies

Discussion In areas of the US and Hawaii where there is potential risk of ZIKV transmission, detecting transmission should it occur is a key public health objective17. This poses a challenge for surveillance systems: to balance the probability of detecting ZIKV transmission with the resources needed to carry out surveillance when infections may be rare. An efficient surveillance system should have high sensitivity (a relatively high probability of detecting infections) and high specificity (a low probability of a positive test result in an individual without infection). Comparing three general surveillance systems, we found that none of them was likely to detect even 5% of all infections that occur, reflecting the difficulty in detecting ZIKV transmission because a high proportion of infections are mild or asymptomatic. These low detection probabilities likely contribute to delays in detection of local transmission40. Nonetheless, the objective here is not to detect all cases, but to detect at least one locally transmitted case and thus prompt public health authorities to conduct enhanced surveillance and recommend appropriate prevention measures in that location. Among these strategies, the system for testing individuals presenting in EDs had a higher probability of detecting at least one ZIKV infection than systems designed to detect infection in pregnant women or blood donors. Despite the limited disease experienced by those infected, symptomatic individuals seeking care ...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research

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ConclusionActual body weight and bone marrow involvement may be utilized as potential predictive indicators of R-IRRs. Further study is needed to validate these indicators and determine appropriate utilization in practice.
Source: Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Specific contexts appeared to be associated with problematic drinking for both sexes. Among both men and women, "social drinking" was associated with problematic drinking. Both "home drinking" (men) and "daytime drinking" (women) contexts, were associated with problematic drinking and depressive symptoms. Targeted alcohol-focused interventions need to address co-occurring mental health issues. PMID: 31519127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Substance Use and Misuse - Category: Addiction Tags: Subst Use Misuse Source Type: research
Conclusions: Reduced expression of ER stress markers in trophoblast cells against increased VEGF highlighted a new window to explore prospective drugs that can be designed to modulate the activities of various ER stress sensors in order to alleviate ER stress in pregnant women with preeclampsia. PMID: 31517301 [PubMed]
Source: Reproductive Biology - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol X Source Type: research
Abstract Objective: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women treated for infertility and oocyte donors, and to investigate the possible influence of HPV infection on reproductive outcomes. Study design: In this observational laboratory-based study, cervical swabs were collected from oocyte donors (n = 207), and women treated for infertility (n = 945) and analysed for the presence of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) genotypes using the cobas® 4800 HPV Test and PapilloCheck® HPV-Screening. Associations between hrHPV positiv...
Source: Reproductive Biology - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol X Source Type: research
This study provided an assessment of the sensitivity of the ion beam techniques used, and highlighted the complexity of such analyses on thin silver leaves due to the different factors affecting them, and the composite nature of the object. Thus, the thicknesses calculated from the RBS analyses presented a great variability that seems to be related to the leaf characteristics, the manufacturing process and/or the life of the decor. Nevertheless, observations suggest that silver leaves coming from the Netherlands are thicker than the ones from Spain, Italy or France. Concerning the elemental composition, the results discard...
Source: Talanta - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Talanta Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Josep Moreno-RiusAbstractOpioid addiction has reached the epidemic status in the United States in recent years. A multitude of factors have contributed to an alarming increase in misuse and health issues related to these drugs. Although medications exist to treat some aspects of opioid addiction since long ago, relapse and fatality rates remain very high despite their long-term availability. Therefore, more research devoted to better understanding its neural substrates is needed to aid developing new treatment opti...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Friedman SH, Tamburello AC, Kaempf A, Hall RCW Abstract Prescribing for women in jails and prisons requires special consideration and should be informed by extant evidence. Incarcerated women have higher rates of mental illness than both females in the community and incarcerated men. Medication administration concerns that may disproportionately affect female prisoners include drug-drug interactions with contraceptives, intermittent dosing schedules, and concerns about metabolic side effects. Further, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause may all affect medication choices. Incarcerated women frequently have ...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law - Category: Medical Law Tags: J Am Acad Psychiatry Law Source Type: research
ESOPHAGEAL CANCERS AND MODEL SYSTEMS. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:266-271 Authors: Rustgi AK Abstract Gastrointestinal cancers are largely epithelial in nature and arise from the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colorectum and liver. In aggregate, these cancers are the most common malignancies in the United States and worldwide, but suffer from poor outcomes in late stages. Our overall work aims to elucidate the following: 1) how normal epithelial cells become metaplastic and dysplastic; 2) how tumor cells invade and interact with activated fibroblasts and immune cells; and 3) how tumor cells d...
Source: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association - Category: General Medicine Tags: Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc Source Type: research
MYCOBACTERIUM CHIMAERA INFECTIONS AFTER CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY: LESSONS FROM A GLOBAL OUTBREAK. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:136-144 Authors: Diekema DJ Abstract A global outbreak of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections has been associated with exposure to certain heater-cooler devices (HCDs) used during cardiopulmonary bypass. Outbreak investigations have shown that these HCDs harbor M. chimaera in water circuits and generate bio-aerosols in the operating room, leading to airborne transmission to patients during surgery. Whole genome sequencing data support a common-source outbreak ori...
Source: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association - Category: General Medicine Tags: Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous bleeding probably caused by Exenatide. The exact pathophysiology, by which the drug can cause spontaneous bleeding, is still not clear and has to be revealed. PMID: 31517602 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Endocrine Regulations - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research
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