Discovery of endogenous opioid systems: what it has meant for the clinician's understanding of pain and its treatment

Abstract Before the discovery of the endogenous opioid system in the 1970s, opioids were understood only through the lens of opioid drug effects. Opium produced sleep, pain relief, and addiction. Once a variety of opioids had been extracted from opium, and still others synthesized chemically, it became clear that there must be endogenous receptors to explain differential drug effects. So, the search was on to identify the receptors, and subsequently their endogenous ligands. Even then, the consequential ways in which the endogenous opioid system influences the way we respond to the environment and survive took time to unravel. Today's understanding extends far beyond simply accepting pain relief and addiction as separate processes, to the realization that the endogenous opioid system achieves constant adjustments between punishment (pain) and reward in communicating areas of the brain previously thought to subserve separate functions. The system also plays a crucial role in socialization. Taken together, these 2 lines of research have led to new insights into why the endogenous opioid system is so important in terms of evolution, individual survival and day-to-day function, and how important it is to consider opioid medications within the context of these critical natural functions.
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Pain Classics Source Type: research

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Authors: Koller G, Schwarzer A, Halfter K, Soyka M Abstract Introduction: Opioid addiction is a worldwide disease with a significant impact. A multitude of physical and mental comorbidities are associated with opioid addiction, pain being one of the most relevant. Insufficient pain management may lead to a disruption in medical treatment, self-medication, and subsequent harm to patients. Areas covered: In this review, the authors provide a general overview of opioid addiction. A literature search for pain management and opioid maintenance treatment was conducted. Different settings of acute or chronic pain and situ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
You're reading Harnessing Self-Compassion and Altruistic Behavior Improves Quality of Life, originally posted on Pick the Brain | Motivation and Self Improvement. If you're enjoying this, please visit our site for more inspirational articles. For centuries, people have contemplated and argued over the merits and flaws of the human condition. Philosophers and psychologists have theoretically and scientifically dissected elements of the human psyche to get a better understanding of who we are as a species, and why we do what we do. While much focus has been given to negative aspects of personal choices, I thought to put thi...
Source: PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: featured happiness philosophy psychology self confidence self improvement altruistic behavior be gentle with yourself how to value yourself improve quality of life practicing self love self worth self-compassion Source Type: blogs
Over the last 12 months New Zealanders have entered into the debate about cannabis and cannabinoids for medical use. In the coming year we’ll hear even more about cannabis as we consider legalising cannabis for recreational use. There is so much rhetoric around the issue, and so much misinformation I thought it high time (see what I did there?!) to write about where I see the research is at for cannabis and cannabinoids for persistent pain. For the purposes of this blog, I’m going to use the following definitions: Cannabis = the plant; cannabis-based medication = registered extracts (either synthetic or from...
Source: HealthSkills Weblog - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Chronic pain Coping strategies Research Science in practice cannabinoids cannabis medicinal cannabis neuropathic pain persistent pain recreational cannabis Source Type: blogs
Marijuana legalization is in motion: step by step, state by state. Counting Washington, where I live, twelve states have already passed recreational marijuana legislation. At least seven more states, including New York and Minnesota, both traditionally liberal states, are slated for similar legalization in 2019.  While stopping the weed train is unlikely (there are profits to be made in this new frontier), ensuring that its brakes and safety protocols are in working order is imperative. Protections for our most vulnerable populations — adolescents, young adults, and people with mental illness issues — ough...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Addictions Medications Professional Stigma Substance Abuse Effects Of Cannabis Legalizing Marijuana Psychosis Stigmatization Substance Use THC Source Type: news
When I entered the world of sex work almost three years ago, I had been fired from yet another waitressing job for reasons related to my drinking. A friend invited me to do a play that was for and by sex workers to benefit the Sex Workers Project, which “provides client-centered legal and social services to individuals who engage in sex work.” It paid, so I said yes. I loved the fast pace, changing clientele, and quick money of waiting tables. Booze and drugs were always present. Most of my jobs allowed us to drink on the job; just not the way I drank on the job. The last job I waitressed I would be sober for a...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Addiction Publishers Recovery The Fix Alcoholism Drugs escort Prostitution Rehab sex work sober Sobriety Source Type: blogs
You're reading These 5 Mental Health Tools Will Help You Cope with Any Difficult Situation, originally posted on Pick the Brain | Motivation and Self Improvement. If you're enjoying this, please visit our site for more inspirational articles. Though it may be a surprise for some, mental health problems are commonplace. According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, nearly 44 million American adults deal with mental health symptoms on an annual basis. That’s nearly 20% of the country’s adult population. Thankfully, similar to physical conditions like joint pain or eczema, mental health problems can be tr...
Source: PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: confidence depression featured happiness health and fitness meditation motivation psychology self confidence self improvement Uncategorized affirmations best self-improvement blogs how to be successful mental health pickthebr Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: Problematic MPU was associated with depression, bodily pain and daytime sleepiness. These findings will inform further studies of MPU-related health problems. PMID: 31076240 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Addictive Behaviors - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addict Behav Source Type: research
Rui Yan1, ShiWan Tao1, HaiYan Liu1, Yu Chen1, JiaBo Shi1, YuYin Yang1, RongXin Zhu1, ZhiJian Yao1,2* and Qing Lu3,4*1Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China2Nanjing Brain Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China3School of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China4Child Development and Learning Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Nanjing, ChinaBackground: Major depressive disorders often involve somatic symptoms and have been found to have fundamental differences from non-somatic depressi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Stefano Comai, Martha Lopez-Canul, Danilo De Gregorio, Ada Posner, Mohamed Ettaoussi, Fabrizia Guarnieri, Gabriella GobbiAbstractMelatonin (MLT), a neuromodulator mainly acting through two G-protein coupled receptors MT1 and MT2, regulates many brain functions, including circadian rhythms, mood, pain and sleep. MLT and non-selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonists are clinically used in neuropsychiatric and/or sleep disorders. However, the selective roles of the MT1 and MT2 receptors need to be clarified. Here, we review the role of the MT...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
The objective of this presentation is to explore historical, scientific, interventional, and other differences between the two paradigms, so that innovators, researchers, practitioners, policy-makers, patients, end-users, and others can gain clarity with respect to both the explicit and implicit assumptions associated with brain advancement agendas of any kind. Over the course of three decades, a series of brain-centric, evolution-inspired insights have been articulated with increasing refinement, as principles of allostasis (Sterling and Eyer, 1988; Sterling, 2004, 2012, 2014). Allostasis recognizes that the role of the ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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