Meet the Heroic Animals That Went Into Space Before Humans

The First Space Pioneers Bettmann Archive Animals were every bit as heroic as the first human astronauts By Jeffrey Kluger Animals have long been the science community’s shock troops—the first to hit the beaches when a new frontier of knowledge is being claimed. Those soldiers hardly volunteered for the misison: The thousands of monkeys and mice that were used as test subjects for Jonas Salk’s first polio vaccine were conscripted for the job, whether they wanted to do it or not. That doesn’t diminish their profound contribution to scientific knowledge—indeed, it enlarges it. The same is true of the first animals in space. Human beings had visions of traveling above the atmosphere and out toward the moon and planets, but the survivability of such an enterprise was very much an open question. It was 60 years ago, on November 3, 1957, that Laika—an 11-lb., part-terrier mongrel, picked up on the streets of Moscow—began providing answers, when the Soviet Union launched her into orbit aboard Sputnik 2. Less than a month earlier, when the Soviets shocked the world with the launch of Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite, the U.S. reacted with equal parts indignation, outrage and fear. But the world loved Laika, perhaps no one more than the members of the American press, who nicknamed her Muttnik. The world worried for her too, fretting especially over whether she would survive her journey. The answer was that she wouldn’t, and t...
Source: TIME.com: Top Science and Health Stories - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: animals belka ham Laika NASA space strelka Source Type: news

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[Daily Trust] Wednesday last week marked three years since Nigeria's last documented case of polio, which was also the last case recorded in Africa. This means the African continent is set to be certified free of the virus by the World Health Organization, WHO. "This is a dramatic change from 2012 when the country accounted for more than half of all polio cases worldwide, with 223 victims," WHO said. Nigeria is the last country in Africa to have witnessed a case of polio in Borno State. Outside of Nigeria, the last case
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Publication date: 14–20 September 2019Source: The Lancet, Volume 394, Issue 10202Author(s): Mohammad Ali, Nisar Ahmad, Haji Khan, Shahid Ali, Fazal Akbar, Zahid Hussain
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Delpeyroux RNA recombination is a major driving force in the evolution and genetic architecture shaping of enteroviruses. In particular, intertypic recombination is implicated in the emergence of most pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, which have caused numerous outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide. Recent experimental studies that relied on recombination cellular systems mimicking natural genetic exchanges between enteroviruses provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of enterovirus recombination and enabled to define a new model of genetic plasticity for enteroviruses. Homologou...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
[WHO] Following confirmation of circulating vaccine derived polio virus type 2 (cVDPV2) in the environmental sample from Tamale Metropolis and also detection of Polio in a two (2) years, (9) nine months old child from Chereponi district of the North East Region, the Ministry of Health /Ghana Health Service declared the event a Public Health Emergency of National Concern. Again on 25th August 2019, the National Polio Laboratory further notified the Ghana Health Service of confirmation of Polio in environmental su
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
CONCLUSION: As OPV isn't used in Italy since 2002, recovery of Sabin-like polioviruses indicates the possibility of poliovirus reintroduction, considering also the important exposure to migratory flows. Finally, monitoring the environmental circulation of NPEV, could compensate for the lack of a surveillance system of the infections they cause. PMID: 31517896 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Acta Biomed Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The low GMTs and the clear tendency to decrease with increasing age of the subjects, especially against to PV1, confirm the framework of attention that polio is receiving at national and international level. PMID: 31517887 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Acta Biomed Source Type: research
[Ghana Govt.] The Ghana Health Service (GHS) has started a polio vaccination campaign in the Greater Accra region. The campaign, which started on Wednesday, September 11, 2019, will end on Saturday, September 14, 2019.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
After infection with poliovirus, only about 1% of individuals develop paralysis. I have always wondered whether genetic polymorphisms underlie the rarity of this disease outcome. The results of study carried out in Denmark provide the first insights. The study group consisted of 17 individuals who developed poliomyelitis in the pre-vaccine years, 1940-1950, and one who […]
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Basic virology Information genetic susceptibility paralysis poliomyelitis poliovirus single nucleotide polymorphism SNIP viral viruses Source Type: blogs
[Premium Times] The Executive Director, National Primary Healthcare Development Agency, Faisal Shuaib, has expressed optimism that Nigeria will not suffer a setback in the success recorded on wild polio eradication in the country.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
It may be possible to eradicate malaria—one of history’s deadliest diseases—from the planet by 2050, according to a coalition of 41 leading scientists, economists and health-policy experts writing in the Lancet. “Malaria is one of the oldest and deadliest diseases of humankind,” says Sir Richard Feachem, one of the report’s authors and co-chair of the Lancet commission on malaria eradication. “If we, humankind, were to take on this challenge and eradicate malaria by 2050, it would be an achievement of historic proportions. There would be nothing quite like it.” Malaria, a mos...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Infectious Disease onetime Source Type: news
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