Meet the Heroic Animals That Went Into Space Before Humans

The First Space Pioneers Bettmann Archive Animals were every bit as heroic as the first human astronauts By Jeffrey Kluger Animals have long been the science community’s shock troops—the first to hit the beaches when a new frontier of knowledge is being claimed. Those soldiers hardly volunteered for the misison: The thousands of monkeys and mice that were used as test subjects for Jonas Salk’s first polio vaccine were conscripted for the job, whether they wanted to do it or not. That doesn’t diminish their profound contribution to scientific knowledge—indeed, it enlarges it. The same is true of the first animals in space. Human beings had visions of traveling above the atmosphere and out toward the moon and planets, but the survivability of such an enterprise was very much an open question. It was 60 years ago, on November 3, 1957, that Laika—an 11-lb., part-terrier mongrel, picked up on the streets of Moscow—began providing answers, when the Soviet Union launched her into orbit aboard Sputnik 2. Less than a month earlier, when the Soviets shocked the world with the launch of Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite, the U.S. reacted with equal parts indignation, outrage and fear. But the world loved Laika, perhaps no one more than the members of the American press, who nicknamed her Muttnik. The world worried for her too, fretting especially over whether she would survive her journey. The answer was that she wouldn’t, and t...
Source: Top Science and Health Stories - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: animals belka ham Laika NASA space strelka Source Type: news

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[Ghanaian Times] The Ghana Health Service yesterday began a nationwide campaign to vaccinate children under five against the polio virus.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
[Ghanaian Times] The Ghana Health Service (GHS) says multiple doses of the oral polio vaccine (OPV) administered against the polio virus type 2 does not pose any harm to children.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
This report describes polio eradication activities and progress toward polio eradication in Afghanistan during January 2019-July 2020 and updates previous reports (2,3). Since April 2018, insurgent groups have imposed bans on house-to-house vaccination. In September 2019, vaccination campaigns in areas under insurgency control were restarted only at health facilities. In addition, during March-June 2020, all campaigns were paused because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The number of WPV1 cases reported in Afghanistan increased from 21 in 2018 to 29 in 2019. During January-July 2020, 41 WPV1 cases were ...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
This report describes the increase of wild poliovirus circulation in Afghanistan.
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Polio (poliomyelitis) Transmission Source Type: news
Condition:   Poliomyelitis Interventions:   Biological: Novel monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine type 2 (nOPV2);   Biological: Bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (nOPV2) Sponsors:   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention;   International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Not yet recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
[Daily Trust] Rotary Club, Fagge branch in Kano has distributed wheelchairs to 10 victims of poliomyelitis in the state.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
[Radio Dabanga] Khartoum -- Almost 10 million doses of polio vaccine arrived in Khartoum last week. The vaccines will be used to immunize 8.6 million children under the age of five during the National Polio Campaign planned for October.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Conditions:   Polio;   Vaccine Reaction Interventions:   Biological: vaccinated with Sabin IPV;   Biological: vaccinated with bOPV Sponsors:   Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention;   China National Biotec Group Company ltd Enrolling by invitation
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Countries are transitioning assets and functions from polio eradication to integrated immunization and surveillance activities. We assessed the extent of linkages between and perceptions of National Immunizati...
Source: Health Research Policy and Systems - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a worldwide effect for what seems like an eternity. After shelter-in-place orders became more prevalent in March,  most people probably didn’t think they’d still be wearing masks in October. So the question remains, when will the pandemic end?  It turns out there are quite a few factors that contribute to the rise and fall of a pandemic, some within our control, some that are not. An outbreak becomes a pandemic when it meets two criteria, first, it spreads rapidly and widely, and second, it must qualify as a severe disease. If either of these factors change, it is no long...
Source: Conversations with Dr Greene - Category: Child Development Authors: Tags: Dr. Greene's Blog Coronavirus COVID COVID-19 COVID-19 Feature Source Type: blogs
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