Normal and Cancerous Tissues Release Extrachromosomal Circular DNA (eccDNA) into the Circulation

Cell-free circulating linear DNA is being explored for noninvasive diagnosis and management of tumors and fetuses, the so-called liquid biopsy. Previously, we observed the presence of small extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA), called microDNA, in the nuclei of mammalian tissues and cell lines. Now, we demonstrate that cell-free microDNA derived from uniquely mapping regions of the genome is detectable in plasma and serum from both mice and humans and that they are significantly longer (30%–60%>250 bases) than cell-free circulating linear DNA (~150 bases). Tumor-derived human microDNA is detected in the mouse circulation in a mouse xenograft model of human ovarian cancer. Comparing the microDNA from paired tumor and normal lung tissue specimens reveals that the tumors contain longer microDNA. Consistent with human cancers releasing microDNA into the circulation, serum and plasma samples (12 lung and 11 ovarian cancer) collected prior to surgery are enriched for longer cell-free microDNA compared with samples from the same patient obtained several weeks after surgical resection of the tumor. Thus, circular DNA in the circulation is a previously unexplored pool of nucleic acids that could complement miRNAs and linear DNA for diagnosis and for intercellular communication. Implications: eccDNA derived from chromosomal genomic sequence, first discovered in the nuclei of cells, are detected in the circulation, are longer than linear cell-free DNA, and are released from n...
Source: Molecular Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Genomics Source Type: research

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Thalhammer Jäger High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is currently treated with cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. The majority of patients show a primary response; however, many rapidly develop drug resistance. Antiestrogens have been studied as low toxic treatment options for HGSOC, with higher response rates in platinum-sensitive cases. Mechanisms for this difference in response remain unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated the impact of platinum resistance on steroid metabolism in six established HGSOC cell lines sensitive and resistant against carboplatin using a high-r...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Condition:   Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer Interventions:   Drug: TQB2450;   Drug: Anlotinib Sponsor:   Chia Tai Tianqing Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd. Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Journal of Geriatric OncologyAuthor(s): Yanin Chavarri-Guerra, Thomas P. Slavin, Ossian Longoria-Lozano, Jeffrey N. WeitzelAbstractEarlier age at onset is one characteristic of hereditary cancer syndromes, so most studies of genetic testing have focused on young patients with cancer. However, recent studies of multigene panel tests in unselected cancer populations have detected a considerable proportion of older patients with germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in cancer susceptibility genes. As the number of older patients with cancer continues to rise, clinicians s...
Source: Journal of Geriatric Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
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Source: Gynecological Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
Source: Cancer Management and Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Management and Research Source Type: research
Pharmacogenomics,Volume 21, Issue 3, Page 195-207, February 2020.
Source: Future Medicine: Pharmacogenomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Community Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
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