Intratumor Heterogeneity: Novel Approaches for Resolving Genomic Architecture and Clonal Evolution
High-throughput genomic technologies have revealed a remarkably complex portrait of intratumor heterogeneity in cancer and have shown that tumors evolve through a reiterative process of genetic diversification and clonal selection. This discovery has challenged the classical paradigm of clonal dominance and brought attention to subclonal tumor cell populations that contribute to the cancer phenotype. Dynamic evolutionary models may explain how these populations grow within the ecosystem of tissues, including linear, branching, neutral, and punctuated patterns. Recent evidence in breast cancer favors branching and punctuated evolution driven by genome instability as well as nongenetic sources of heterogeneity, such as epigenetic variation, hierarchal tumor cell organization, and subclonal cell–cell interactions. Resolution of the full mutational landscape of tumors could help reconstruct their phylogenetic trees and trace the subclonal origins of therapeutic resistance, relapsed disease, and distant metastases, the major causes of cancer-related mortality. Real-time assessment of the tumor subclonal architecture, however, remains limited by the high rate of errors produced by most genome-wide sequencing methods as well as the practical difficulties associated with serial tumor genotyping in patients. This review focuses on novel approaches to mitigate these challenges using bulk tumor, liquid biopsies, single-cell analysis, and deep sequencing techniques. The origins of ...
In conclusion, the addition of PPIs to the treatment regimen of breast cancer appears to be a promising strategy to potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapy and may suppress cancer metastasis. PMID: 31955147 [PubMed - in process]
Abstract A series of nine new 2,3-disubstituted 4(3H)-quinazolin-4-one derivatives was furnished starting from the 2-propyl-4(3H)-quinazo-line-4-one (2). The reinvestigation of the key starting quinazolinone 2 was performed under microwave irradiation (MW) and solvent-free conditions. Combination of MW and phase-transfer catalysis using tetrabutylammonium benzoate (TBAB) as a novel neutral ionic catalyst was used for carrying out N-alkylation and condensation reactions of compound 2 as a simple, efficient and eco-friendly technique. The structure of the synthesized compounds was elucidated using different spectral...
Cancer Research UK scientists working in Cambridge made a vital energy-producing chemical magnetic and used MRI scans to watch how quickly breast cancer cells used it up.
I am currently in my senior year of undergrad, and i honestly don't know what my chances of getting into a mid-tier medical school is since my scores are kinda low average. I personally feel i am a little different because im ADHD and Dyslexic and coupled with my experience as a whole. Currently, i have a 3.4 overall GPA scored a 505 on the MCAT The second author on Triple-negative Metaplastic Breast Cancer research paper. I work full time as a Regional Representative for a hemp company... WAMC since i am out the ordinary case
Breast cancer progression can vary significantly between patients. Even within the same tumor, different areas may be composed of different types of cells and characterized by different tumor structures. This heterogeneity makes it challenging to ascertain the severity of a tumor and assess its molecular subtype, thereby affecting the precision of diagnosis and the choice of the most effective treatment approach.
(Cancer Research UK) A new type of scan that involves magnetizing molecules allows doctors to see in real-time which regions of a breast tumor are active, according to research funded by Cancer Research UK and published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences today. This is the first time researchers have demonstrated that this scanning technique, called carbon-13 hyperpolarized imaging, can be used to monitor breast cancer.
(University of Zurich) An imaging approach developed at UZH enables the study of breast cancer tissue in greater detail. It uses 35 biomarkers to identify the different cell types in breast tumors and its surrounding area compared to the current standard of testing single markers. This increases the precision of tumor analysis and classification - and improves personalized diagnostics for breast cancer patients.