Powder flow analysis: A simple method to indicate the ideal amount of lactose fines in dry powder inhaler formulations
Publication date: 15 January 2018 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 535, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Mats Hertel, Eugen Schwarz, Mirjam Kobler, Sabine Hauptstein, Hartwig Steckel, Regina Scherließ Many efforts have been made in the past to understand the function of lactose fines which are given as a ternary component to carrier-based dry powder inhaler formulations. It is undisputed that fines can significantly improve the performance of such formulations, but choosing the right amount of fines is a crucial point, because too high concentrations can have negative effects on the dispersion performance. The aim of this study was to indicate the optimal concentration of fines with a simple test method. For this purpose, mixtures with salbutamol sulfate and two different lactose carriers were prepared with a high shear mixer, measured with a FT4 powder rheometer and tested for fine particle delivery with two different inhaler devices. A correlation between the fluidization energy, measured with the aeration test set up, and the fine particle fractions (FPF) could be proven. This also applied for the aeration ratio, as well as the permeability of the powder samples. In addition, drug-free mixtures hardly differed in their rheological properties from mixtures containing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), which indicates that the method could be suitable for cost-saving screening trials. Furthermore, important aspects that explain the function of...
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Authors: Schaefer A, Lubos E, Pietzsch JB, Pietzsch M, Weber S, Blankenberg S, Reichenspurner H, Schäfer U, Conradi L Abstract AIMS: The German healthcare system was among the first to introduce transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVR) in routine care. Objective of this study was to analyze adoption and utilization patterns and to estimate impact of TMVR availability on mitral valve (MV) procedure volumes in the first 8 years after commercialization. METHODS AND RESULTS: Procedure volumes were collected from German Federal Statistics Office databases for TMVR and mitral valve surgery (MVS) from 2008-2015. ...