New drug target can break down cancer's barrier against treatment

Targeting a molecule in blood vessels can make cancer therapy significantly more effective, according to research. Researchers have found that a molecule, called focal adhesion kinase (FAK), signals the body to repair itself after chemotherapy or radiotherapy, which kill cancer cells by damaging DNA. When the researchers removed FAK from blood vessels that grew in melanoma or lung cancer models, both chemotherapy and radiation therapies were far more effective in killing the tumors.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news

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Authors: Irwin DE, Davis B, Bell JA, Galaznik A, Garcia-Ribas I Abstract Aim &methods: A retrospective study using the IBM Explorys Universe Database assessed the risk of gastrointestinal events (enterocolitis or diarrhea) among melanoma and lung cancer patients treated with ipilimumab and nivolumab combination or monotherapy. Results &conclusion: There were 904 melanoma patients (607 ipilimumab, 140 nivolumab and 157 combo) and 1641 lung cancer patients (68 ipilimumab, 1542 nivolumab and 31 combo). Approximately, 37% of lung patients and 46% of melanoma patients experienced at least one adverse event. Afte...
Source: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Comp Eff Res Source Type: research
Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), on the basis of lymphocyte, neutrophil and platelet counts had been published to be a good prognostic factor in multiple cancers. Nevertheless, the prognostic value of SII in cancer patients remains inconsistent. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic value of SII in these patients with cancer. A total of 22 articles with 7657 patients enrolled in this meta-analysis. The combined result revealed that a high SII was evidently correlated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR=1.69, 95%CI=1.42-2.01, p
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONSThis expanded and updated analysis confirms that single-fraction preoperative SRS confers excellent cavity local control with very low risk of RN or LMD. Preoperative SRS has several potential advantages compared to postoperative SRS, including reduced risk of RN due to smaller irradiated volume without need for cavity margin expansion and reduced risk of LMD due to sterilization of tumor cells prior to spillage at the time of surgery. Subtotal resection, though infrequent, is associated with significantly worse cavity LR and OS. Based on these results, a randomized trial of preoperative versus postoperative SRS...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data demonstrate that ozone therapy is a valid supportive therapy for fatigue in cancer patients, both during cancer therapy and in a palliative setting with no significant side effects. PMID: 30536352 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
Conclusion: Metastases in mice lung tissues and human lung cancer cell lines were decreased by KD of Chi3L1. USF1 bound to the Chi3L1 promoter, however, Chi3L1 expression was decreased by USF1, despite USF1 enhancing the transcriptional activity of Chi3L1. We found that USF1 induced miR-125a-3p levels which suppressed Chi3L1 expression. Ultimately, our results suggest that lung metastasis is suppressed by knock-down of Chi3L1 through miR-125a-3p-mediated up-regulation of USF1.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
This study aims to provide a comprehensive report of the haem-irAEs induced by anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1.MethodsIn this descriptive observational study, we included consecutive patients aged at least 18 years with grade 2 or worse haem-irAEs induced by anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy registered in three French pharmacovigilance databases: the Registre des Effets Indésirables Sévères des Anticorps Monoclonaux Immunomodulateurs en Cancérologie (REISAMIC; a prospective registry of patients treated with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 at a single centre), the ImmunoTOX committee of Gustave Roussy (a nat...
Source: The Lancet Haematology - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
We present a comprehensive knowledge of immune therapy through PD-1/PD-L1 blockade that argues how efficient the process is, in colon cancer carcinoma. In this review, we discuss the responsiveness of immunotherapy on PD-1/PD-L1 blockade and various tactics for overcoming weak responses to these checkpoint inhibitors in CRC. More research using controlled trials is required to enable new discoveries to provide continued success with immune-based therapies and grounds for optimism about the future of CRC patients.Graphical abstractThe mechanism of interaction between PD-1+ T-cells and PD-L1/2+ tumor cells.
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
We present a comprehensive knowledge of immune therapy through PD-1/PD-L1 blockade that argues how efficient the process is, in colon cancer carcinoma. In this review, we discuss the responsiveness of immunotherapy on PD-1/PD-L1 blockade and various tactics for overcoming weak responses to these checkpoint inhibitors in CRC. More research using controlled trials is required to enable new discoveries to provide continued success with immune-based therapies and grounds for optimism about the future of CRC patients. PMID: 30522017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research
Abstract Although rare, cutaneous metastases portend a poor prognosis and are often an indicator of widespread disease. Breast cancer and melanoma are the most common types of cancer that are associated with spread to and within the skin; however, other malignancies, such as lung, colon, head and neck, and hematologic, have been described with a degree of relative frequency. A variety of clinical appearances and syndromes of cutaneous metastases are presented and described in this article. Possible treatment options, including skin-directed therapies and immunotherapies, are also discussed. PMID: 30497674 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Hematol Oncol Clin North Am Source Type: research
In this study we have evaluated methanol extract of leaf (ANL) and stem bark (ANB) of A. nitida against two lung cancer cell lines; A-549 and H460 (Human non-small lung cancer cell lines) during in vitro assays for growth inhibition. Treatment with ANL and ANB markedly inhibited the growth of both cancer cell lines. Exposure of A-549 and H460 cancer cell lines to ANL and ANB inhibited cell survival, colony growth and migration of cells. Further, treatment of A-549 and H460 with ANL and ANB indicated alteration in actin fibers after staining with rhodamine-phalloidin. Both extracts cause shrinkage and cell cycle arrest duri...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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