New drug target can break down cancer's barrier against treatment

Targeting a molecule in blood vessels can make cancer therapy significantly more effective, according to research. Researchers have found that a molecule, called focal adhesion kinase (FAK), signals the body to repair itself after chemotherapy or radiotherapy, which kill cancer cells by damaging DNA. When the researchers removed FAK from blood vessels that grew in melanoma or lung cancer models, both chemotherapy and radiation therapies were far more effective in killing the tumors.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news

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CONCLUSION: In NSCLC patients treated with PD-1 blockade with long term follow up, TMB, PD-L1 and CD8 were each associated with benefit from PD-1 blockade. Pre-treatment PD-L1 expression was correlated with T lymphocyte infiltration as well as OS, while models incorporating TMB and infiltrating CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes did not substantially add to the predictive value of PD-L1 alone for OS. PMID: 31113840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our studies suggested sequencing even a single, frequently mutated gene may provide insight into genome-wide mutational burden, and may serve as a biomarker to predict immune response.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractCancer cells can escape the immune system by different mechanisms. The evasion of cancer cells from immune surveillance is prevented by immune checkpoint inhibitors, allowing the patient ’s own immune system to attack their cancer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown improvement in overall survival for melanoma, lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma in clinical trials. Unfortunately, not all patients respond to this therapy.In cancer management, percutaneous ablation techniques are well established for both cure and local control of many tumour types. Cryoablation of the tumour tissue results in cell destr...
Source: Insights into Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Authors: Niranjan A, Lunsford LD, Ahluwalia MS Abstract The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the brain are lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma. The established management approaches for brain metastasis include stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated radiation therapy, and surgical resection. In the past the role of medical therapies in brain metastases was limited. In the last decade, our understanding of molecular drivers of brain metastases and CNS penetration of drugs across the blood-brain barrier has improved. The molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors have shown effectiveness in br...
Source: Progress in Neurological Surgery - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Prog Neurol Surg Source Type: research
Abstract Immunotherapy has led to unprecedented improvement in the treatment and prognosis of high-risk resectable and metastatic disease across cancer types. Nowhere is this better highlighted than in the management of advanced and metastatic melanoma with the introduction of molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Following their success in melanoma, immunotherapies have also been evaluated and their use approved in the management across a variety of other solid malignancies in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and advanced/metastatic setting. This review provides an overview of the current lan...
Source: Clinical Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Surg Oncol Clin N Am Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31090921 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Clin Pharmacol Ther Source Type: research
We report a case of pulmonary toxicity related to melanoma immunotherapy observed by 18F-FDG PET/CT.
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Interesting Images Source Type: research
Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) targeting the programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) has shown promising results in the fight against cancer. Systemic anti-tumor reactions due to radiation therapy (RT) can lead to regression of non-irradiated lesions (NiLs), termed "abscopal effect" (AbE). Combination of both treatments can enhance this effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate AbEs during anti-PD-1 therapy and irradiation. We screened 168 patients receiving pembrolizumab or nivolumab at our center. Inclusion criteria were start of RT within 1 month after the first or last application of pembrolizumab (2mg/kg...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Opinion statementBrain metastases represent a common and devastating complication of cancer with survival on the order of a few months in most patients. Melanoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer remain the primary disease histologies with the highest rates of metastatic spread to the brain. The incidence of brain metastases has continued to rise, likely explained by multiple factors. Improvement in progression-free survival in systemic cancer is likely attributable to advances in medical therapy, earlier supportive and symptomatic care, and improved precision around diagnosis and detection. In this context, longer survival ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Amy L Shergold, Rhona Millar, Robert J B NibbsAbstractGreater understanding of tumour immunobiology has led to a new era of cancer treatment in which immuno-oncology (IO) therapies are used to boost anti-cancer immune responses. Prominent among these therapies are immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), antibody-based drugs that can unleash the power of tumour-specific CD8 + T-cells. ICIs targeting the Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) cell surface receptor or its ligand PD-L1 are particularly effective, with clinical st...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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