Gut bacteria 'boost' cancer therapy

Trials suggest the trillions of micro-organisms living in us alter immunotherapy's effectiveness.
Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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UCLA researchers have discovered  genetic similarities between the adult stem cells responsible for maintaining and repairing epithelial tissues — which line all of the organs and cavities inside the body — and the cells that drive aggressive epithelial cancers. Their findings could bring about a better understanding of how ag gressive, treatment-resistant cancers develop and progress, and could eventually lead to new drugs for a range of advanced epithelial cancers such as lung, prostate and bladder cancers. The study, led by senior authors Owen Witte and Thomas Graeber, both of the  UCLA E...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
AbstractThe immune system encompasses a broad array of defense mechanisms against foreign threats, including invading pathogens and transformed neoplastic cells. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critically involved in innate immunity, serving as pattern recognition receptors whose stimulation leads to additional innate and adaptive immune responses. Malignant cells exploit the natural immunomodulatory functions of TLRs, expressed mainly by infiltrating immune cells but also aberrantly by tumor cells, to foster their survival, invasion, and evasion of anti-tumor immune responses. An extensive body of research has demonstrated...
Source: Targeted Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Yu Y, Cui J Abstract Modulation of the tumor microenvironment is becoming an increasingly popular research topic in the field of immunotherapy, and studies regarding immune checkpoint blockades and cancer immunotherapy have pushed cancer immunotherapy to a climax. Simultaneously, the manipulation of the immune regulatory pathway can create an effective immunotherapy strategy; however, the tumor microenvironment serves an important role in suppressing the antitumor immunity by its significant heterogeneity. A number of patients with cancer do not have a good response to monotherapy approaches; therefore, co...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
oto A Abstract Deregulated WNT signaling has been shown to favor malignant transformation, tumor progression, and resistance to conventional cancer therapy in a variety of preclinical and clinical settings. Accumulating evidence suggests that aberrant WNT signaling may also subvert cancer immunosurveillance, hence promoting immunoevasion and resistance to multiple immunotherapeutics, including immune checkpoint blockers. Here, we discuss the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which WNT signaling influences cancer immunosurveillance and present potential therapeutic avenues to harness currently available WNT...
Source: Trends in Cell Biology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Trends Cell Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: 6 September 2018Source: Cell, Volume 174, Issue 6Author(s): Lucas B. SullivanAltered cell metabolism is ubiquitous in cancer cells; however, it remains challenging to exploit these alterations for cancer therapy. A new study reveals that metabolic alterations to the urea cycle promote tumor growth but unexpectedly also trigger mutations that mark cancer cells for recognition by immunotherapy.
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith the advent of cancer immunotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors, patients with malignancies can now achieve durable remissions for conditions previously described as terminal. However, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) associated with cancer immunotherapy have become an anticipated consequence of enhanced T cell activation. Through an extensive literature review, we assess the most recent clinical and basic research data concerning immune checkpoint blockade and describe the spectrum of associated irAEs as well as their management.Recent FindingsAnti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-CTLA-4 a...
Source: Current Rheumatology Reports - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
Despite the high long-term survival in localized prostate cancer, metastatic prostate cancer remains largely incurable even after intensive multimodal therapy. The lethality of advanced disease is driven by the lack of therapeutic regimens capable of generating durable responses in the setting of extreme tumor heterogeneity on the genetic and cell biological levels. Here, we review available prostate cancer model systems, the prostate cancer genome atlas, cellular and functional heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment, tumor-intrinsic and tumor-extrinsic mechanisms underlying therapeutic resistance, and technological a...
Source: Genes and Development - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Cancer and Disease Models Reviews Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Olga GordeevaAbstractCancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are considered as unique and promising cancer biomarkers and targets for cancer therapy. CTAs are multifunctional protein group with specific expression patterns in normal embryonic and adult cells and various types of cancer cells. CTAs are involved in regulating of the basic cellular processes during development, stem cell differentiation and carcinogenesis though the biological roles and cell functions of CTA families remain largely unclear. Analysis of CTA expression patterns ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
LOS ANGELES– Stand Up To Cancer (SU2C), a division of the Entertainment Industry Foundation (EIF), is proud to announce that the Hollywood community is rallying together yet again to support the sixth biennial televised fundraising special. CBS will donate one hour of commercial-free primetime to broadcast the event on Friday, Sept. 7  from 8:00 – 9:00 PM ET/PT (7:00 – 8:00 PM CT). Mahershala Ali, Kathy Bates, Katie Couric, Jennifer Garner, Tony Hale, Marg Helgenberger, Ed Helms, Ken Jeong, Marlee Matlin, Matthew McConaughey, Maria Menounos, Jillian Michaels, Trevor Noah, Dak Prescott, Italia Ricci, ...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Only CBS Stand Up To Cancer Source Type: news
We describe recent observations with regard to functional exhaustion of iNKT and MAIT cells in MM pathology and discuss the potential application of checkpoint inhibition as an attractive target for prolonged activation of these immunomodulatory T cells in the treatment of MM.
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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