Effects of vascular endothelial growth factors and their receptors on megakaryocytes and platelets and related diseases

Summary It is well known that vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, VEGFRs) are expressed in different tissues, and VEGF‐VEGFR loops regulate a wide range of responses, including metabolic homeostasis, cell proliferation, migration and tubuleogenesis. As ligands, VEGFs act on three structurally related VEGFRs (VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 [also termed FLT1, KDR and FLT4, respectively]) that deliver downstream signals. Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), megakaryocytic cell lines, cultured megakaryocytes (MKs), primary MKs and abnormal MKs express and secrete VEGFs. During the development from HSCs to MKs, VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 are expressed at different developmental stages, respectively, and re‐expressed, e.g., VEGFR2, and play different roles in commitment, differentiation, proliferation, survival and polyplodization of HSCs/MKs via autocrine, paracrine and/or even intracrine loops. Moreover, VEGFs and their receptors are abnormally expressed in MK‐related diseases, including myeloproliferative neoplasms, myelodysplastic syndromes and acute megakaryocytic leukaemia (a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukaemia), and they lead to the disordered proliferation/differentiation of bone marrow cells and angiogenesis, indicating that they are closely related to these diseases. Thus, targeting VEGF‐VEGFR loops may be of potential therapeutic value.
Source: British Journal of Haematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Source: Hematology Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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