NY-ESO-1- and survivin-specific T-cell responses in the peripheral blood from patients with glioma

AbstractThe prognosis for patients with glioblastoma is grim. Ex vivo expanded tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-reactive T-cells from patients with glioma may represent a viable source for anticancer-directed cellular therapies. Immunohistochemistry was used to test the survivin (n = 40 samples) and NY-ESO-1 (n = 38 samples) protein expression in tumor specimens. T-cells from peripheral blood were stimulated with TAAs (synthetic peptides) in IL-2 and IL-7, or using a combination of IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were tested for antigen-specific proliferation by flow cytometry, and IFN- γ production was tested by ELISA. Twenty-eight out of 38 cancer specimens exhibited NY-ESO-1 protein expression, 2/38 showed a strong universal (4+) NY-ESO-1 staining, and 9/40 cancer lesions exhibited a strong (4+) staining for survivin. We could detect antigen-specific IFN-γ responses in 25% blo od samples for NY-ESO-1 and 30% for survivin. NY-ESO-1-expanded T-cells recognized naturally processed and presented epitopes. NY-ESO-1 or survivin expression in glioma represents viable targets for anticancer-directed T-cells for the biological therapy of patients with glioma.
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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AbstractDespite remarkable success in the treatment of hematological malignancies, CAR T-cell therapies for solid tumors have floundered, in large part due to local immune suppression and the effects of prolonged stimulation leading to T-cell dysfunction and exhaustion. One mechanism by which gliomas and other cancers can hamper CAR T cells is through surface expression of inhibitory ligands such as programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Using the CRIPSR-Cas9 system, we created universal CAR T cells resistant to PD-1 inhibition through multiplexed gene disruption of endogenous T-cell receptor (TRAC), beta-2 microglobulin ...
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Purpose of review Checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) represent the forefront of novel immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of solid cancers. However, the clinical development of CPIs in glioblastoma (GBM) has been challenging owing to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and, possibly, low tumor mutation burden. Here, we review possible mechanisms responsible for the success of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade in patients with hypermutated GBM, recent clinical trials of anti-PD-1 monotherapy, trials incorporating neoadjuvant strategies, and trials of immunotherapy combination approaches in GBM. Mechanis...
Source: Current Opinion in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: NEOPLASMS: Edited by Antonio Omuro Source Type: research
AbstractGlioblastoma is a highly prevalent and aggressive form of primary brain tumor. It represents approximately 56% of all the newly diagnosed gliomas. Macrophages are one of the major constituents of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the human gliomas. The role of immunosuppressive macrophages is very well documented in correlation with the poor prognosis of patients suffering from breast, prostate, bladder and cervical cancers. The current study highlights the correlation between the tumor-associated macrophage phenotypes and glioma progression. We observed an increase in the pool of M2 macrophages in high-grade glio...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Glioma is the most common primary brain cancer, and half of patients present a diagnosis of glioblastoma (GBM), its most aggressive and lethal form. Conventional therapies, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have not resulted in major ameliorations in GBM survival outcome, which remains extremely poor. Recent immunotherapy improvements for other tumors, coupled with growing knowledge of the complex interactions between malignant glioma cells and the immune system, led to an exponential increase in glioma immunotherapy research. However, immunotherapeutic strategies in GBM have not yet reac...
Source: Immunobiology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These results support consideration of a CD200AR-L as a novel platform for immunotherapy against multiple cancers including glioblastoma multiforme. PMID: 31624103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
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Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research
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Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
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Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Brain tumors are among the deadliest malignancies. The brain tumor microenvironment (TME) hosts a unique collection of cells, soluble factors, and extracellular matrix components that regulate disease evolution of both primary and metastatic brain malignancies. It is established that macrophages and other myeloid cells are abundant in the brain TME and strongly correlate with aggressive phenotypes and distinct genetic signatures, while lymphoid cells are less frequent but are now known to have a pronounced effect on disease progression. Different types of brain tumors vary widely in their microenvironmental contexture, and...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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