An operating principle of the turtle utricle to detect wide dynamic range.

An operating principle of the turtle utricle to detect wide dynamic range. Hear Res. 2017 Oct 09;: Authors: Nam JH Abstract The utricle encodes both static information such as head orientation, and dynamic information such as vibrations. It is not well understood how the utricle can encode both static and dynamic information for a wide dynamic range (from 2 times the gravitational acceleration; from DC to > 1000 Hz vibrations). Using computational models of the hair cells in the turtle utricle, this study presents an explanation on how the turtle utricle encodes stimulations over such a wide dynamic range. Two hair bundles were modeled using the finite element method-one representing the striolar hair cell (Cell S), and the other representing the medial extrastriolar hair cell (Cell E). A mechano-transduction (MET) channel model was incorporated to compute MET current (iMET) due to hair bundle deflection. A macro-mechanical model of the utricle was used to compute otoconial motions from head accelerations (aHead). According to known anatomical data, Cell E has a long kinocilium that is embedded into the stiff otoconial layer. Unlike Cell E, the hair bundle of Cell S falls short of the otoconial layer. Considering such difference in the mechanical connectivity between the hair cell bundle and the otoconial layer, three cases were simulated: Cell E displacement-clamped, Cell S viscously-coupled, and Cell S displacement-clamped. Head accel...
Source: Hearing Research - Category: Audiology Authors: Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Related Links:

Chenxi Jiang, Xiaonan Li, Jiaqing Yan, Tao Yu, Xueyuan Wang, Zhiwei Ren, Donghong Li, Chang Liu, Wei Du, Xiaoxia Zhou, Yue Xing, Guoping Ren, Guojun Zhang, Xiaofeng Yang
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Karina Limburg, Andreas Dinkel, Gabriele Schmid-M ühlbauer, Heribert Sattel, Katharina Radziej, Sandra Becker-Bense, Peter Henningsen, Marianne Dieterich, Claas Lahmann
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
David M. Routman, Elizabeth Yan, Sujay Vora, Jennifer Peterson, Anita Mahajan, Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Nadia Laack, Paul D. Brown, Ian F. Parney, Terry C. Burns, Daniel M. Trifiletti
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Claudia M. Garc ía-Peña, Daniela Ávila-González, Amaya Miquelajáuregui, Carlos Lozano-Flores, Grant S. Mastick, Elisa Tamariz, Alfredo Varela-Echavarría
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The changes in the ocular posterior structure may serve as evidence of the trigeminovascular system mechanism underlying migraine and transneuronal retrograde degeneration of the primary visual cortex, which reflects the cortical spreading depression.Eur Neurol 2018;80:130 –137
Source: European Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Extended HD was not associated with lower mortality among octogenarians and nonagenarians, while it was associated with better survival among younger patients. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment session length in elderly incident HD patients.Am J Nephrol 2018;48:389 –398
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Although residual confounding may have influenced the results, the associations observed here are not consistent with a potent beneficial effect of midodrine with respect to either clinical or hemodynamic outcomes.Am J Nephrol 2018;48:381 –388
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Am J Nephrol 2018;48:378 –380
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Peritoneal dialysis is not associated with less CAC or CAC progression than hemodialysis, and perhaps with even more progression. This indicates that vascular calcification does not develop less in peritoneal dialysis than in hemodialysis.Am J Nephrol 2018;48:369 –377
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is characterized by progressive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. Increasing evidence has suggested that ECM synthesis was increased in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) under high-glucose conditions, but the effects of high-glucose peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS) on ECM synthesis have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the potential mechanisms of high-glucose PDS-induced production of ECM in  HPMCs. HPMCs were stimulated by high-glucose PDS. The activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was inhibited by rapamycin or regul...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
More News: Audiology | Study