Do birds differentiate between white noise and deterministic chaos?
Abstract Noisy, unpredictable sounds are often present in the vocalizations of fearful and stressed animals across many taxa. A variety of structural characteristics, called nonlinear acoustic phenomena, that include subharmonics, rapid frequency modulations, and deterministic chaos are responsible for the harsh sound quality of these vocalizations. Exposure to nonlinear sound can elicit increased arousal in birds and mammals. Past experiments have used white noise to test for effects of deterministic chaos on perceivers. However, deterministic chaos differs structurally from white noise (i.e., random signal with equal energy at all frequencies), and unlike white noise, may differ dramatically depending on how it is produced. In addition, the subtle structural variation of chaos may not be distinguishable in the environment due to the attenuation and degradation of sound over distance and different habitat types. We designed two experiments to clarify whether American robins (Turdus migratorius) and warbling vireos (Vireo gilvus) discriminate between white noise and deterministic chaos. We broadcast and re‐recorded white noise and two exemplars of deterministic chaos—one generated with a Chua oscillator and the other generated using a logistic equation—at 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 80 m across open and forested habitat and used spectrogram correlations to compare stimuli along this degradational gradient. We found that sounds degraded similarly in both habitats...
The objectives of this systematic review and meta‐analysis were to estimate the pooled test–retest reliability for parent and youth assessments of seven common disorders, and to examine sources of between‐study heterogeneity in reliability. MethodsFollowing a systematic review of the literature, multilevel random effects meta‐analyses were used to analyse 202 reliability estimates (Cohen's kappa = ҡ) from 31 eligible studies and 5,369 assessments of 3,344 children and youth. ResultsPooled reliability was moderate at ҡ = .58 (CI 95% 0.53–0.63) and between‐study heterogeneity was sub...
ConclusionsAdjunctive NAC appears to be a safe treatment that has efficacy for schizophrenia, but not for bipolar disorder or MDD. Further higher quality RCTs are warranted to determine the role of adjunctive NAC in the treatment of major psychiatric disorders.
Here’s the second episode of Health in 2 point 00, hosted by Jessica DaMassa. She asks me as many questions as I can answer in two minutes. Hope you enjoy it! And if you have questions please email them to us or leave them in the comments–Matthew Holt
A long-term follow-up showed that an exercise program conducted during active treatment continues to confer benefits even 4 years later.Medscape Medical News
DEMENTIA affects around 850,000 people in the UK, but early signs of the condition can be hard to detect. A new study has suggested restless sleep can be one of the first symptoms of Alzheimer ’s disease.
Although teenage pregnancy rates have declined, too many teens still use birth control methods incorrectly or inconsistently.
Abstract In this article, I use infants' sensitivity to distributive fairness as a test case to identify the extents and limits of infants' sociomoral cognition and behavior. Infants' sensitivity to distributive fairness is in some ways commensurate with this understanding in older children and adults; infants expect fair distributions of resources and evaluate others based on their adherence to or violation of fairness norms. Yet these sensitivities also differ in important ways, including that infants do not spontaneously punish unfair individuals. I address questions about the role of experience in infants' development ...
HOW TO live longer is an age old question to which a healthy diet, exercise and being happy are often the answer. But a major study has revealed drinking a couple of glasses of wine or beer each night could be the secret to living into your 90s.
Lack of dental care through Medicaid not only harms people ’ s health, but has negative economic implications as well.
Avoiding non-biodegradable sunscreen may be the one solution to coral bleaching travelers have the most immediate and direct influence over.