Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of cerebrovascular accidents
Purpose of review Ocular functions can be affected in almost any type of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) creating a burden on the patient and family and limiting functionality. The present review summarizes the different ocular outcomes after stroke, divided into three categories: vision, ocular motility, and visual perception. We also discuss interventions that have been proposed to help restore vision and perception after CVA. Recent findings Interventions that might help expand or compensate for visual field loss and visuospatial neglect include explorative saccade training, prisms, visual restoration therapy (VRT), and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). VRT makes use of neuroplasticity, which has shown efficacy in animal models but remains controversial in human studies. Summary CVAs can lead to decreased visual acuity, visual field loss, ocular motility abnormalities, and visuospatial perception deficits. Although ocular motility problems can be corrected with surgery, vision, and perception deficits are more difficult to overcome. Interventions to restore or compensate for visual field deficits are controversial despite theoretical underpinnings, animal model evidence, and case reports of their efficacies.
CONCLUSION: This setup allows one to perform ramp tests on RowErg with continuously increasing LOAD until TERMauto. In particular cases ⩒O2max might be slightly underestimated at TERMauto. PMID: 29035587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Despite many prevention initiatives, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, drug abuse, and smoking actually appears to be increasing among new ischemic stroke patients in the United States, a new study shows.Medscape Medical News
Conclusions: The physiological mechanism of PES may consist in restoration of sensory feedback, which is known to be crucial for the execution of a safe swallow. SP possibly acts as a biomarker for indicating response to PES.Neurosignals 2017;25:74 –87
In conclusion a hypothetic model for the implication of actual findings in everyday clinical practice is proposed. In this context personalized treatment could be used to tailor treatment to specific individuals according to their clinical endophenotypes. Moreover a potential target for the development of novel intervention strategies might be used.Neurosignals 2017;25:54 –73
22 –23 October 2017, Tel Aviv, Israel
CONCLUSION: This case is a classic example of the relapse-remitting MELAS syndrome progression with episodic clinical flares and fluctuating patterns of stroke-like lesions on imaging. MELAS is an important diagnostic consideration when neuroimaging reveals a pattern of disappearing and relapsing cortical brain lesions that may occur in different areas of the brain and are not necessarily limited to discrete vascular territories. Future studies should investigate disease mechanisms at the cellular level and the value of advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques for a targeted approach to therapy. PMID: 29026367 [PubMed]
ConclusionsIschaemic stroke incidence declined no faster in people with a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes than in people without diabetes. Increasing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes among stroke patients may mean that declines in case fatality over time will be less marked in the future.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This study is to investigate the cascade of events of NSF ATPase inactivation, resulting in a massive buildup of late endosomes (LEs) and fatal release of cathepsin B (CTSB) after transient cerebral ischemia using the 2-vessel occlusion with hypotension (2VO+Hypotension) global brain ischemia model. Rats were subjected to 20 min of transient cerebral ischemia followed by 0.5, 4, 24, and 72 h of reperfusion. Neuronal histopathology and ultrastructure were examined by the light and electron microscopy, respectively. Western blotting and confocal microscopy were utilized for analyzing the levels, redistribution, an...
AbstractRecent studies based on experimental animal models of stroke have suggested that uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is thought to regulate energy metabolism and reduce reactive oxygen species generation, provides protection against reperfusion damage. We aimed to investigate whether -866G/A polymorphism in the promoter of the UCP2 gene, which enhances its transcriptional activity, is associated with functional prognosis in patients with embolic ischemic stroke after early recanalization. We investigate a hospital-based prospective cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke ...
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017 Source:The Lancet Author(s): David Wood, Jean-Luc Eiselé