An Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy study on the γ-irradiation sterilization of the pharmaceutical excipient l-histidine: Regeneration of the radicals in solution

Publication date: 25 November 2017 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 533, Issue 1 Author(s): C. Vallotto, H.E. Williams, D.M. Murphy, Z.J. Ayres, R. Edge, M.E. Newton, C.J. Wedge The effects of γ-radiation sterilization on the parenteral excipient l-histidine were analysed by means of EPR spectroscopy. The irradiation process was found to induce the formation of a deamination radical which was persistent in the solid state. The nature and reactivity of the radicals following dissolution in water was evaluated using spin-trapping EPR experiments. The deamination radical was found to regenerate in solution in the presence of trace metals, potentially leading to radical induced degradation reactions occurring up to an hour after the dissolution process. Understanding this process is significant for the improved design of parental pharmaceutical formulations in which unwanted radical reactions after γ‐radiation sterilization could lead to degradation of active ingredients. Graphical abstract
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Perceived devaluation was extremely prevalent among street-involved youth in our sample. We also observed that youth most in need of health and social services were significantly more likely to report high levels of perceived devaluation which may result in a reluctance to seek out key services and supports. These findings highlight the need to implement stigma reduction interventions for vulnerable youth in this setting. PMID: 30526206 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Substance Use and Misuse - Category: Addiction Tags: Subst Use Misuse Source Type: research
Conclusion/importance: This work is significant in expanding the populations thought to be impacted by and understanding social disparities related to SC use. Further investigation is needed to assess the relationship between concomitant use of SC and other drug, particularly opiates. This may suggest that the sequelae of one drug may enhance or alleviate the effects of the other. PMID: 30526203 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Substance Use and Misuse - Category: Addiction Tags: Subst Use Misuse Source Type: research
Source: Current Psychiatry Reviews - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Articles Source Type: research
Source: Current Psychiatry Reviews - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Source: Current Psychiatry Reviews - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Review article Source Type: research
Source: Current Psychiatry Reviews - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Review article Source Type: research
Source: Current Psychiatry Reviews - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Review article Source Type: research
Source: Current Psychiatry Reviews - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Review article Source Type: research
Source: Current Psychiatry Reviews - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Review article Source Type: research
Source: Current Psychiatry Reviews - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Review article Source Type: research
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