Different ways of giving antibiotics to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in people with cystic fibrosis

People with cystic fibrosis are particularly susceptible to chest infections, some of which can become chronic. It ’s important, therefore to try to find treatments for these infections and an updated Cochrane Review from the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group examines the evidence for the use of antibiotics. Alan Smyth, a Coordinating Editor for the Group, based in University of Nottingham i n the UK, is one of the authors of this April 2017 review update. He tells us more in this podcast.
Source: Podcasts from The Cochrane Library - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: podcasts

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Authors: McElvaney OJ, Wade P, Murphy M, Reeves EP, McElvaney NG Abstract Introduction: The major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is lung disease. Inflammation in the CF airways occurs from a young age and contributes significantly to disease progression and shortened life expectancy. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the key immune cells involved in airway inflammation in CF, the contribution of the intrinsic genetic defect to the CF inflammatory phenotype, and anti-inflammatory strategies designed to overcome what is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of CF lung d...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research
Polymyxins, namely colistimethate sodium (colistin or polymyxin E) and polymyxin B, are used for multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacterial infections, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii 1. As treatments and therapy have advanced, patients with cystic fibrosis are living longer. However, these patients have high exposure to intravenous antibiotics, most commonly penicillins, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides. With colonization or infections with resistant gram-negative bacilli, the exposure to antibiotics broadens to include the polymyxins.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Letters Source Type: research
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, resulting in defective CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate transport, with dysregulation of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). These changes alter fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and result in an exaggerated proinflammatory response driven, in part, by infection. We tested the hypothesis that NLRP3-inflammasome activation and ENaC upregulation drives exaggerated innate-immune responses in this multisystem disease. We identify an enhanced proinflammatory signature, as evidenced by incr...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Human Biology and Medicine Immunology and Inflammation Source Type: research
Source: BMJ News - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
In conclusion, IL-1α and IL-1β are upstream components of a signaling pathway, including IL-1R1 and downstream SPDEF and ERN2, that generate a positive feedback cycle capable of producing persistent mucus hyperconcentration and IL-1α and/or IL-1β–mediated neutrophilic inflammation in the absence of infection in CF airways. Targeting this pathway therapeutically may ameliorate mucus obstruction and inflammation-induced structural damage in young CF children.
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Mucus obstruction is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease, leading to chronic infection, dysregulated inflammation, and progressive lung disease. As mucus hyperexpression is a key component in the initiation and perpetuation of airway obstruction, the triggers underlying mucin release must be identified and understood. In this issue of the JCI, Chen et al. sought to delineate the mechanisms that allow IL-1α/IL-1β to perpetuate the mucoinflammatory environment characteristic of the CF airway. The authors demonstrated that IL-1α and IL-1β stimulated non-CF human bronchial epithelial (HBE) c...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Key findings of this national survey of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis epidemiology were that its prevalence, incidence and mortality have all increased over recent years; we estimate that around 212,000 people are currently living with bronchiectasis in the UK, very much higher than commonly quoted figures. Bronchiectasis is more common in females than males; 60% of diagnoses are made in the over-70 age group. Regional differences in prevalence, incidence, mortality, and hospital admission were identified.
Source: Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Short communication Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The review was unable to find good quality evidence, in the form of randomised controlled studies, regarding the efficacy of splenectomy for treating thalassaemia major or intermedia. The single included study provided little information about the efficacy of splenectomy, and compared open surgery and laparoscopic methods. Further studies need to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of splenectomy and the comparative advantages of surgical methods. Due to a lack of high quality evidence from randomised controlled studies, well-conducted observational studies may be used to answer this question. PMID: 3152...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
Condition:   Bronchiectasis Intervention:   Drug: Roflumilast Sponsor:   Assiut University Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
The family of Ayda Louden, from Carlisle, say moving to Scotland is now a serious consideration after the government there approved the life-extending drug Orkambi for NHS use.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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