Fifty Shades of Transplantation Tolerance: Beyond a Binary Tolerant/Non-Tolerant Paradigm

AbstractPurpose of ReviewIt has long been considered that tolerance in a transplant recipient is a binary all-or-none state: either the graft is accepted without immunosuppression identifying the recipient as tolerant, or the recipient rejects the graft and is not tolerant. This tolerance paradigm, however, does not accurately reflect data emerging from animal models and patients and requires revision.Recent FindingsIt is becoming appreciated that there may be different gradations in the quality of transplantation tolerance based on underlying cellular mechanisms of immunological tolerance, and that individuals may enhance the robustness of their state of transplant tolerance by strengthening or combining different cellular mechanisms. Furthermore, evidence suggests that even if tolerance is lost, the loss may be only temporary, and in some circumstances, tolerance can be restored.SummaryShifting our focus from an all-or-nothing tolerance paradigm to one with many shades may help us better understand how tolerance operates, and how this state may be tracked and enhanced for better patient outcomes.
Source: Current Transplantation Reports - Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS The nude mouse orthotopic liver transplantation model of human HCC was shown to be a reliable model that has the potential for future research on the pathogenesis and progression of HCC and studies on drug development. PMID: 31736477 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
Authors: Sobrinho G, Ministro A, Silva A, Pedro L Abstract Renal artery aneurysms are rare. They are most commonly degenerative, congenital or due to medial fibroplasia. Proximal aneurysms can be repaired by endovascular and in-situ surgical techniques. However, aneurysms of the distal renal artery and its branches require ex-vivo surgical repair, also known as auto-transplantation: the kidney is removed, dissected and reconstructed in cold ischemia, and put back in place. A 69-year-old woman, with hypertension, presented with bilateral renal artery aneurysms with a diameter of 3.4 cm on the rig...
Source: Acta Medica Portuguesa - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Med Port Source Type: research
European researchers have developed a functional liver imaging score that uses...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: New MRI contrast material promises earlier liver diagnosis New PET tracer for liver shows preclinical promise Gadolinium dosing calculator can guide MRI contrast use
Source: Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
In this study, the effect on corneal stromal cells of adding decellularized corneal extracellular matrix (ECM) to an electrospun polymer with differing fiber organizations was explored. Electrospun matrices were generated using polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL combined with ECM and electrospun into random, radial and perpendicularly aligned fiber scaffolds. Human corneal stromal cells were seeded onto these scaffolds and the effect of composition and orientation on the cells phenotype was assessed. Incorporation of ECM into PCL increased hydrophilicity of scaffolds without an adverse effect on Young's modulus. Cells seeded o...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Yang Zhou, Zhipeng Gu, Jie Liu, Keqing Huang, Guiting Liu, Jun WuAbstractBone transplantations are still facing many serious challenges, hydrogel as a new kind of artificial bone substitutes has developed into a promising bone scaffold material. However, it is still a challenge to combine bioactive agents and hydrogel matrix to promote osteoinductivity. Herein, we developed a novel bioactive hydrogel based on arginine-based unsaturated poly (ester amide) (Arg-UPEA) and methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HA-MA) via photo-crosslinking. As ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
We report here a series of children who developed pulmonary hypertension after HSCT. Methods Between January 2008 and December 2015, we retrospectively analysed 366 children who underwent HSCT (age range 0.5–252 months; median 20.3 months). During the post-HSCT course, echocardiography scans motivated by respiratory symptoms identified 31 patients with elevated tricuspid regurgitation velocity (>2.8 m·s–1), confirmed when possible by right heart catheterisation (RHC). Results 22 patients had confirmed pulmonary hypertension with mean±sd pulmonary arterial pressure 40.1±1...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease, Paediatric pulmonology Original Articles: Pulmonary hypertension and paediatrics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Chemical Engineering Research and DesignAuthor(s): Katarzyna Skrzypek, Efrem Curcio, Dimitrios StamatialisAbstractWidespread application of islet transplantation as a cure for type 1 Diabetes Mellitus patients is limited mainly due to the need for life-long immunosuppression associated with serious side effects. Immunoisolation by encapsulation of islets in semi-permeable membranes may overcome this issue as it allows for transplantation potentially obviating the need for immunosuppressive drug therapy.This work focuses on the development and validation of a model ...
Source: Chemical Engineering Research and Design - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Abstract Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a central role in the induction and maintenance of immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. Tregs constantly express the high-affinity receptor to IL-2. IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine and a key survival factor for Tregs. It maintains Tregs' suppressive function by promoting Foxp3 expression and subsequent production of immunoregulatory cytokines. Administration of low-dose IL-2 is shown to be a promising approach to prevent allograft rejection and to treat autoimmune and inflammatory conditions in experimental models. The combination of IL-2 with its mAb (JES6-1) has also bee...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
We report a series of 5 solid organ transplantation recipients diagnosed with STEC-HUS between January 2017 and March 2019 in 2 French nephrology centers (Table 1). One patient had 2 episodes of STEC-HUS. All had severe acute kidney injury (requiring hemodialysis in 2). Neurological involvement was noted during 5 episodes: seizures (n = 4) and confusion/coma (n = 4).
Source: Kidney International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
As many as 10% to 20% of patients undergoing kidney transplantation develop post-transplant diabetes mellitus, which is associated with increased mortality. Even borderline changes in glucose metabolism, so-called prediabetes, may involve a similar risk. A recent study by Porrini et  al. showed for the first time that such changes in glucose metabolism are in fact associated with future cardiovascular disease and death in kidney-transplanted patients. This commentary discusses the relevance and clinical implications of these new findings.
Source: Kidney International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
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