Harnessing Apoptotic Cells for Transplantation Tolerance: Current Status and Future Perspectives

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe use of donor apoptotic cells is an emerging therapy for inducing transplantation tolerance. In this review, we will discuss current understanding of mechanisms of this approach, as well as crucial aspects necessary for successful translation of this approach to clinical transplantation.Recent FindingsTransplantation tolerance by donor apoptotic cells is mediated by their homeostatic interaction with recipient phagocytes and subsequent expansion of suppressor cell populations as well as inhibition of effector T cells via deletion and anergy. To ensure their tolerogenicity, it is critical to procure non-stressed donor cells and to induce and arrest their apoptosis at the appropriate stage prior to their administration. Equally important is the monitoring of dynamics of recipient immunological status and its influences on tolerance efficacy and longevity. Emerging concepts and technologies may significantly streamline tolerogen manufacture and delivery of this approach and smooth its transition to clinical application.SummaryHijacking homeostatic clearance of donor apoptotic cells is a promising strategy for transplantation tolerance. Timing is now mature for concerted efforts for transitioning this strategy to clinical transplantation.
Source: Current Transplantation Reports - Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

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Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Image of the Month Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Canadian Journal of CardiologyAuthor(s): Ashlay A. Huitema, Karen Harkness, Shiraz Malik, Neville Suskin, Robert S. McKelvieABSTRACTGlobally, there are approximately 26 million people living with heart failure (HF) and 50% of those patients suffer from HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), costing countries billions of dollars each year. Improvements in treatment of cardiovascular diseases, including advanced HF, have allowed an unprecedented number of patients to survive into old age. Despite these advances, patients with HF deteriorate and often require adva...
Source: Canadian Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Abstract Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is a relatively rare condition, with a higher incidence in adolescents who participate in repetitive overhead sports. The surgical treatment approach for this uncommon problem has varied from microfracture, loose body removal, abrasion chrondroplasty, lesion fixation, osteochondral allograft transplantation surgery, and osteochondral autologous transplantation surgery. The purpose of this study is to present the authors' preferred surgical technique for the treatment of unstable OCD lesions of the capitellum with osteochondral autologous transplantation su...
Source: The Orthopedic Clinics of North America - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Orthop Clin North Am Source Type: research
ConclusionAn Abernethy malformation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained portal hypertension or any of its associated complications in pediatric patients. Early diagnosis and proper management of this condition can lead to a favorable prognosis, as in this case. Accordingly, a pre-operative evaluation is important to determine the proper therapeutic method.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Arthroscopy TechniquesAuthor(s): Omid Jalali, Zachary Vredenburgh, John Prodromo, Neilen Benvegnu, George Frederick “Rick” HatchAbstractPatellar instability is a debilitating condition, and trauma due to the dislocations may severely damage the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint. The lack of healing capacity of cartilage makes treatment of such lesions challenging. In young patients, preservation of native bone and cartilage is a priority, and therefore arthroplasty procedures should be avoided even in relatively larger lesions. Fresh osteo...
Source: Arthroscopy Techniques - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
Authors: Sobrinho G, Ministro A, Silva A, Pedro L Abstract Renal artery aneurysms are rare. They are most commonly degenerative, congenital or due to medial fibroplasia. Proximal aneurysms can be repaired by endovascular and in-situ surgical techniques. However, aneurysms of the distal renal artery and its branches require ex-vivo surgical repair, also known as auto-transplantation: the kidney is removed, dissected and reconstructed in cold ischemia, and put back in place. A 69-year-old woman, with hypertension, presented with bilateral renal artery aneurysms with a diameter of 3.4 cm on the rig...
Source: Acta Medica Portuguesa - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Med Port Source Type: research
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Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
In this study, the effect on corneal stromal cells of adding decellularized corneal extracellular matrix (ECM) to an electrospun polymer with differing fiber organizations was explored. Electrospun matrices were generated using polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL combined with ECM and electrospun into random, radial and perpendicularly aligned fiber scaffolds. Human corneal stromal cells were seeded onto these scaffolds and the effect of composition and orientation on the cells phenotype was assessed. Incorporation of ECM into PCL increased hydrophilicity of scaffolds without an adverse effect on Young's modulus. Cells seeded o...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
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