Chapter 37 Overview of neuroradiology

Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 145 Author(s): Elna-Marie Larsson, Johan Wikström Neuroradiology with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential for the initial evaluation of patients with a clinical suspicion of brain and spine disorders. Morphologic imaging is required to obtain a probable diagnosis to support the treatment decisions in pre- and perinatal disorders, vascular diseases, traumatic injuries, metabolic disorders, epilepsy, infection/inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, degenerative spinal disease, and tumors of the central nervous system. Different postprocessing tools are increasingly used for three-dimensional visualization and quantification of lesions. Additional information is provided by angiographic methods and physiologic CT and MRI techniques, such as diffusion MRI, perfusion CT/MRI, MR spectroscopy, functional MRI, tractography, and nuclear medicine imaging methods. Positron emission tomography (PET) is now integrated with CT (PET/CT), and PET/MR scanners have recently also been introduced. These hybrid techniques facilitate the co-registration of lesions with different modalities, and give new possibilites for functional imaging. Repeated imaging is increasingly performed for treatment monitoring. The improved imaging techniques together with the neuropathologic diagnosis after biopsy or surgery allow more personalized treatment of the patient. Neuroradiology also include...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsThese findings suggest that the MeAA possesses potent cerebroprotective action through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ABSTRACT Yawning is a stereotyped physiological behavior that can represent a sign or symptom of several conditions, such as stroke, parakinesia brachialis oscitans, parkinsonism, Parkinson ’ s disease and epilepsy. More rarely, it can occur in patients with intracranial hypertension, brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, migraine, Chiari malformation type I, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Drug-induced yawning is an uncommon clinical condition and yawning in patients with autism or schizophrenia is very rare. The aim of this review is to describe in detail the occurrence of the phenomenon in such conditions, and its &...
Source: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Electrical Stimulation (ES) is a neurostimulation technique that is used to localize language functions in the brain of people with intractable epilepsy and/or brain tumors. We reviewed 25 ES articles published between 1984 and 2018 and interpreted them from a cognitive neuropsychological perspective. Our aim was to highlight ES as a tool to further our understanding of cognitive models of language. We focused on associations and dissociations between cognitive functions within the framework of two non-neuroanatomically specified models of language. Also, we discussed parallels between the ES and the stro...
Source: Cognitive Neuropsychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Cogn Neuropsychol Source Type: research
With respect to quantification of metabolites in the brain, conventional methods of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) yield results that are highly variable and highly dependent on the sequence type being applied. This invention describes a novel MRS technique that involves preparing longitudinal steady states at different flip angles using trains of RF pulses interspersed with field gradients to quantify metabolites. The method allows quantification of metabolites and their relaxation rates under specified parameters, which may create new ways of analyzing and interpreting tissue properties or identifying and characte...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
By SAURABH JHA Of my time arguing with doctors, 30 % is spent convincing British doctors that their American counterparts aren’t idiots, 30 % convincing American doctors that British doctors aren’t idiots, and 40 % convincing both that I’m not an idiot. A British doctor once earnestly asked whether American physicians carry credit card reading machines inside their white coats. Myths about the NHS can be equally comical. British doctors don’t prostate every morning in deference to the NHS, like the citizens of Oceania sang to Big Brother in Orwell’s dystopia. Nor, in their daily rounds, do the...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: OP-ED Uncategorized AlfieEvans Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS With a high level of confidence and strong concordance, neurosurgeons estimated that the vast majority of patients with central nervous system tumors, hydrocephalus, or neural tube defects mandate neurosurgical involvement. A significant proportion of other common neurological diseases, such as traumatic brain and spinal injury, vascular anomalies, and degenerative spine disease, demand the attention of a neurosurgeon-whether via operative intervention or expert counsel. These estimates facilitate measurement of the expected annual volume of neurosurgical disease globally. PMID: 29749918 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Each year, more than 5 million individuals suffering from treatable neurosurgical conditions will never undergo therapeutic surgical intervention. Populations in Africa and Southeast Asia, where the proportion of neurosurgeons to neurosurgical disease is critically low, are especially at risk. Increasing access to essential neurosurgical care in low- and middle-income countries via neurosurgical workforce expansion as part of surgical system strengthening is necessary to prevent severe disability and death for millions with neurological disease. PMID: 29701548 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
by Michael D. Ehlers, MD, PhD Dr. Ehlers is with Biogen in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2018;15(3–4):15–16 Funding: No funding was received for the preparation of this article. Disclosures: Dr. Ehlers is an employee and shareholder at Biogen Inc. in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Prominent and expensive failures in Alzheimer’s disease therapies have led to a contagious belief system in some parts of the biopharma industry that neuroscience is just too hard, too risky, and too uncertain. But, might this belief system itself be a residual bias of the past? Close inspection reveals all the signs...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Commentary Current Issue Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract Since Lynn and colleagues first described the use of focused ultrasound (FUS) waves for intracranial ablation in 1942, many strides have been made toward the treatment of several brain pathologies using this novel technology. In the modern era of minimal invasiveness, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) promises therapeutic utility for multiple neurosurgical applications, including treatment of tumors, stroke, epilepsy, and functional disorders. Although the use of HIFU as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists, neurologi...
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Neurosurg Focus Source Type: research
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