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Chapter 37 Overview of neuroradiology

Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 145 Author(s): Elna-Marie Larsson, Johan Wikström Neuroradiology with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential for the initial evaluation of patients with a clinical suspicion of brain and spine disorders. Morphologic imaging is required to obtain a probable diagnosis to support the treatment decisions in pre- and perinatal disorders, vascular diseases, traumatic injuries, metabolic disorders, epilepsy, infection/inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, degenerative spinal disease, and tumors of the central nervous system. Different postprocessing tools are increasingly used for three-dimensional visualization and quantification of lesions. Additional information is provided by angiographic methods and physiologic CT and MRI techniques, such as diffusion MRI, perfusion CT/MRI, MR spectroscopy, functional MRI, tractography, and nuclear medicine imaging methods. Positron emission tomography (PET) is now integrated with CT (PET/CT), and PET/MR scanners have recently also been introduced. These hybrid techniques facilitate the co-registration of lesions with different modalities, and give new possibilites for functional imaging. Repeated imaging is increasingly performed for treatment monitoring. The improved imaging techniques together with the neuropathologic diagnosis after biopsy or surgery allow more personalized treatment of the patient. Neuroradiology also include...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract Since Lynn and colleagues first described the use of focused ultrasound (FUS) waves for intracranial ablation in 1942, many strides have been made toward the treatment of several brain pathologies using this novel technology. In the modern era of minimal invasiveness, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) promises therapeutic utility for multiple neurosurgical applications, including treatment of tumors, stroke, epilepsy, and functional disorders. Although the use of HIFU as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists, neurologi...
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Neurosurg Focus Source Type: research
Authors: Matilla-Dueñas A, Corral-Juan M, Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma A, Vilas D, Ispierto L, Morais S, Sequeiros J, Alonso I, Volpini V, Serrano-Munuera C, Pintos-Morell G, Álvarez R, Sánchez I Abstract More than 600 human disorders afflict the nervous system. Of these, neurodegenerative diseases are usually characterised by onset in late adulthood, progressive clinical course, and neuronal loss with regional specificity in the central nervous system. They include Alzheimer's disease and other less frequent dementias, brain cancer, degenerative nerve diseases, encephalitis, epilepsy, geneti...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Walusinski O Abstract Yawning, laughing, and crying are normal physiological behaviors of humans in good health. As with all physiological behaviors, their deregulation can reveal disorders. Pathological yawning occurs in salvos of 10-20 successive yawns, and the number of yawns per day can exceed one hundred. After listing the functional etiologies, we will give the clinical keys for differentiating the most serious causes: iatrogenic, tumors, strokes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and intracranial hypertension. Sudden, uncontrollable episodes of emotional display involving pathological laughing and cryi...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research
Authors: Hersh DS, Eisenberg HM Abstract Focused ultrasound (FUS) produces a region of high intensity at the focal zone of the beam but with minimal effects at adjacent areas, allowing the sonication of deep targets throughout the body. Despite early obstacles to transmitting ultrasound energy through the skull, recent advances in ultrasound technology, software, and real-time monitoring have resulted in a renewed interest in the clinical applications of transcranial FUS. Following extensive pre- clinical studies, ultrasound-induced thermal ablation has been approved by several countries for the treatment of essent...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: J Neurosurg Sci Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Women with eclampsia should be reassured that, although the relative risk of a seizure disorder is higher than unaffected women, the absolute risk is extremely low (approximately one seizure/2,200 person-years). PMID: 29112665 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research
Abstract  In most cases, the etiology of epilepsy is unknown, although some individuals may develop epilepsy as a result of certain brain injuries, following a stroke, a brain tumor or because of drugs and alcohol. Even some rare genetic mutations may be related to the onset of the condition. Seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal activity of neurons in the cerebral cortex. In this case report we show a clinical case of refractory epilepsy due to pain related to uncontrolled dysmenorrhea. The patient, 43 yrs old, had a history of epilepsy of 20 years and ovarian cancer. She was treated with lamotri...
Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Acta Biomed Source Type: research
Conclusion In most cases, earworms are neutral to pleasant, not serious, and may even be part of your brain’s creative process. In a few cases, especially when they continue for more than 24 hours, earworms may indicate something more serious. In those cases, seeing your primary care physician may help you metaphorically take the needle off the stuck record so that you can regain your peace of mind. The post Why you can’t get a song out of your head and what to do about it appeared first on Harvard Health Blog.
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Behavioral Health Brain and cognitive health Mental Health Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, I would never advise John McCain and his family, or any other GBM patient, as to which of these treatments—or which combination of treatments—they should use. I hope they will learn about all of them, and decide on their own which one or ones they would like to try. I would also encourage them to do their own research, or to hire a researcher with experience in finding sensible, science-based, cutting-edge treatments. I am very worried that they will not know about these treatments, and others like them, and will just use the standard of care. That would be a shame. It might also be a death sentence.
Source: HONEST MEDICINE: My Dream for the Future - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017 Source:The Lancet Neurology Author(s): GBD 2015 Neurological Disorders Collaborator GroupValery LFeiginAmanuel AlemuAbajobirKalkidan HassenAbateFoadAbd-AllahAbdishakur MAbdulleSemaw FeredeAberaGebre YitayihAbyuMuktar BeshirAhmedAmani NidhalAichourIbtihelAichourMiloud Taki EddineAichourRufus OlusolaAkinyemiSamerAlabedRajaaAl-RaddadiNelsonAlvis-GuzmanAzmeraw T.AmareHosseinAnsariPalwashaAnwariJohanÄrnlövHamidAsayeshSolomon WeldegebrealAsgedomTesfay MehariAteyLeticiaAvila-BurgosEuripideFrinelG. ArthurAvokpahoAleksandraBaracMiguelBarbozaSuzanne LBarker-ColloTillB&a...
Source: The Lancet Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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