Chapter 31 Diseases of the peripheral nerves

Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 145 Author(s): Istvan Katona, Joachim Weis This chapter reviews the diseases of the peripheral nerves from a neuropathologic point of view, with a special focus on specific morphologic changes, and includes a summary of the histopathologic methods available for their diagnosis. As the rate of obesity and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increase, diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy. Many systemic disorders with metabolic origin, like amyloidosis, hepatic failure, vitamin deficiencies, uremia, lipid metabolism disorders, and others, can also cause axonal or myelin alterations in the peripheral nervous system. The most notable causes of toxic neuropathies are chemotherapeutic agents, alcohol consumption, and exposure to heavy metals and other environmental or biologic toxins. Inflammatory neuropathies cover infectious neuropathies (Lyme disease, human immunodeficiency virus, leprosy, hepatitis) and neuropathies of autoimmune origin (sarcoidosis, Guillain–Barré syndrome/acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and diverse forms of vasculitis. The increasing number of known diseases causing gene mutations in hereditary peripheral neuropathies requires precise characterization, which includes histopathology.
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 23 March 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Sharmili Edwin Thanarajah, Sandra Iglesias, Bojana Kuzmanovic, Lionel Rigoux, Klaas E. Stephan, Jens C. Brüning, Marc TittgemeyerAbstractInsulin modulates dopamine neuron activity in midbrain and affects processes underlying food intake behaviour, including impulsivity and reward processing. Here, we used intranasal administration and task-free functional MRI in humans to assess time- and dose-dependent effects of insulin on functional connectivity of the dopaminergic midbrain – and how these effects varied depending on systemic insulin...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder exhibited an increased risk of subsequent STI during the follow-up period compared with those without bipolar disorder. Comorbidity of substance and alcohol use disorders further increased this risk. Long-term use of bipolar disorder medications (mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics) may reduce this risk. PMID: 30901168 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract On September 22, 2017, "Engaging the Forgotten Parent: Conference of Experts on Fathers' Role in Children's Weight-Related Behaviours and Outcomes" brought researchers, students, health professionals, community stakeholders, and knowledge users from Canada, Australia, and the United States together to Toronto, Ontario, for a 1-day gathering focused on furthering scientific understanding of effective strategies to recruit, engage, and retain fathers in family-based obesity research. Furthermore this conference focused on identifying key knowledge gaps and opportunities for collaborative research ...
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The large, sustained improvements in weight and diabetes observed in this self-selected sample of surgically treated participants are consistent with results of multiple randomized trials. PMID: 30900413 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test associations of prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, oral glucose challenge test results, and postpartum weight loss as predictors of breast milk leptin, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations and whether these relationships vary over time. METHODS: Milk was collected at 1 and 3 months from 135 exclusively breastfeeding women from the longitudinal Mothers and Infants Linked for Healthy Growth (MILk) study. Hormones were assayed in skimmed samples using ELISA. Mixed-effects linear regression models were employed to assess main effects and effect...
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
Authors: PMID: 30900411 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to study weight loss and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or death associated with longer-term phentermine use. METHODS: Using electronic health record data, 13,972 adults were identified with a first phentermine fill in 2010 to 2015, creating exposure categories according to a patient's duration of use (referent: ≤ 3 months). Multivariable linear models were used to compare percent weight loss across categories at 6, 12, and 24 months, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare risk of composite CVD or death, up to 3 year...
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that combined categories of PA and sedentary behaviors modify the extent to which genetic predisposition to obesity results in higher BMI. PMID: 30900409 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: PAT+Lifestyle decreases weight gain during pregnancy through 12 months post partum in SED African American women with overweight or obesity at the start of pregnancy with minimal additional cost. PMID: 30900408 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
Authors: PMID: 30900407 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
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