Control of endemic swine flu persistence in farrow-to-finish pig farms: a stochastic metapopulation modeling assessment

AbstractSwine influenza viruses (swIAVs) are known to persist endemically in farrow-to-finish pig farms, leading to repeated swine flu outbreaks in successive batches of pigs at a similar age (mostly around 8  weeks of age). This persistence in European swine herds involves swIAVs from European lineages including H1avN1, H1huN2, H3N2, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus and their reassortants. The specific population dynamics of farrow-to-finish pig farms, the immune status of the animals at infection-time, the co-circulation of distinct subtypes leading to consecutive or concomitant infections have been evidenced as factors favouring swIAV persistence within herds. We developed a stochastic metapopulation model representing the co-circulation of two distinct swIAVs within a typical farrow-to-finish pig herd to evaluate the risk of reassortant viruses generation due to co-infection events. Control strategies related to herd management and/or vaccination schemes (batch-to-batch or mass vaccination of the sow herd and vaccination of growing pigs) were implemented to assess their relative efficacy regarding viral persistence. The overall probability of a co-infection event for France, possibly leading to reassortment, was evaluated to 16.8%. The export of consecutive piglets batches was identified as the most efficient measure facilitating swIAV infection fade-out. Although some vaccination schemes (batch-to-batch vaccination) had a beneficial effect in breeding sows by reducing t...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION We identified a population of HCV-specific CD4+ T cells with a follicular T helper cell signature that is maintained after therapy-induced elimination of persistent infection and may constitute an important target population for vaccination efforts to prevent reinfection and immunotherapeutic approaches for persistent viral infections.FUNDING Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the European Union, the Berta-Ottenstein-Programme for Advanced Clinician Scientists, and the ANRS.
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Borrego Garcia E, Ruiz Sancho AL, Plaza Lara E, Díaz Gómez L, Delgado Ureña A PMID: 31955900 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Nefrologia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Nefrologia Source Type: research
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Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2015 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): JANICE REIS CIACCI-ZANELLA, REJANE SCHAEFER, DANIELLE GAVA, VANESSA HAACH, MAURÍCIO EGÍDIO CANTÃO, ARLEI COLDEBELLA Influenza A virus (FLUAV) infections are endemic in pork producing countries worldwide but in Brazil it was not considered an important pathogen in pigs. Since the emergence of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) FLUAV, many outbreaks of respiratory disease were observed in pig herds. The aim of this study was to evaluate FLUAV infection in swine in 48 pig farms located in seven Brazilian states...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
la JR Abstract The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil's swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009-2012, we identified multiple previously uncharact...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research
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