Catalonia Just Voted for Independence From Spain. Here ’s Why That Is Unlikely to Happen

Constituents in Spain’s Catalonia region voted for independence in a disputed referendum Sunday that left more than 800 people injured after Spanish riot police used batons and rubber bullets on protesters civilians attempting to cast their ballots. Catalonia has “won the right to become an independent state,” the Associated Press quoted Catalan President Carles Puigdemont as saying after the polling. He also promised to make good on an election pledge to unilaterally declare independence for the region should its constituents vote “yes” in the referendum. Puigdemont added that he would ask the European Union to investigate human rights violations during the vote and accused Spain of writing “another shameful page in its history with Catalonia.” Some 90% of the 2.26 million Catalans who voted cast ballots in favor of independence with 15,000 votes left to count, according to Catalan regional government officials. Some among the 5.3 million people eligible to vote in the region were prevented from doing so after police seized ballot papers, AP reports. On the face of it, the results of the referendum appear to indicate a strong preference for Catalan independence from Spain. But here’s why that’s unlikely to actually happen. What is Catalonia and why is it holding a vote? Catalonia is a region in Spain that is separated from France by the Pyrenees Mountain Range to the North. It stretches along the Mediterranean Coast enco...
Source: TIME.com: Top Science and Health Stories - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized onetime Spain Source Type: news

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AbstractPurpose of reviewUnaware of the natural history of large local reactions caused by Hymenoptera stings, patients and clinicians are often concerned when faced with these reactions. These concerns include the difficulty in avoiding stings, the local discomfort, and the fear that the local reaction portends systemic, potentially life-threatening subsequent reactions. This review presents the historical studies that have assessed the natural history of large local reactions caused by Hymenoptera stings and, in doing so, provides rationale for the current consensus guidelines for the management of these reactions.Recent...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Many familiar Hymenoptera are brightly colored and can sting painfully-thus, their threat and clinical importance may be exaggerated. Most stinging insects only sting to defend themselves or their colonies from predators. The clinical nature of Hymenoptera...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
Sting V154M/WT mice develop an IFN-independent severe combined immunodeficiency with hypogammaglobulinemia, a partially IFN-dependent T cell proliferation defect, and variable lung and kidney inflammation, providing new clues in the understanding of STING gain-of-function pathophysiology.
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Cooling is an effective temporary remedy for itch, bringing welcome relief to itchy insect bites, nettle stings, poison ivy, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Menthol, causing a cooling sensation, has similar itch-relieving effects. Palkar et  al. demonstrate that TRPM8, a menthol- and cold-activated ion channel, is essential for cooling to relieve itch, suggesting that pharmacologic TRPM8 activation should be explored further as an antipruritic strategy.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Abstract Phagocytes cope with the threat of living bacteria via detection of vita-PAMPs, a specific class of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that denotes microbial viability and trigger a commensurate innate response. Prokaryotic mRNA and cyclic-di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) serve as vita-PAMPs for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively, and elicit heightened proinflammatory responses not warranted for dead bacteria. The innate sensor TMEM173/STING detects c-di-AMP produced by internalized live Gram-positive bacteria, and quickly mobilizes interdependent pre-formed cell-auton...
Source: Autophagy - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Autophagy Source Type: research
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an endoplasmic reticulum–resident membrane protein that mediates cytosolic pathogen DNA–induced innate immunity and inflammatory responses in host defenses. STING is activated by cyclic di-nucleotides and is then translocated to the Golgi apparatus, an event that triggers STING assembly with the downstream enzyme TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). This assembly leads to the phosphorylation of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), which in turn induces expression of type-I interferon (IFN) and chemokine genes. STING also mediates inflammatory respons...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Signal Transduction Source Type: research
Abstract Many familiar Hymenoptera are brightly colored and can sting painfully-thus, their threat and clinical importance may be exaggerated. Most stinging insects only sting to defend themselves or their colonies from predators. The clinical nature of Hymenoptera envenomations contrasts that of other venomous animals, including other arthropods, primarily because allergic reaction, not direct intoxication, is the usual main concern. This review focuses mainly on the clinical features of direct toxicity to Hymenoptera envenomations, which can induce a high incidence of acute renal failure, liver failure, multiple...
Source: Toxicon - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: SOX2 dampens the immunogenicity of HNSCC by targeting the STING pathway for degradation. The nanosatellite vaccine offers a novel and effective approach to enhance the adjuvant potential of STING agonist and break cancer tolerance to immunotherapy. PMID: 29769207 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Song LIU, Qiuyuan XIA, Xiuwen WU, Feng SUN, Qiongyuan HU, Jie WU, Meng WANG, Gefei WANG, Qiu RAO, Jianan REN, Wenxian GUAN
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
PMID: 29769658 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cellular and Molecular Immunology - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Immunol Source Type: research
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