Physicochemical properties of mucus and their impact on transmucosal drug delivery
Publication date: 30 October 2017 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 532, Issue 1 Author(s): Jasmim Leal, Hugh D.C. Smyth, Debadyuti Ghosh Mucus is a selective barrier to particles and molecules, preventing penetration to the epithelial surface of mucosal tissues. Significant advances in transmucosal drug delivery have recently been made and have emphasized that an understanding of the basic structure, viscoelastic properties, and interactions of mucus is of great value in the design of efficient drug delivery systems. Mucins, the primary non-aqueous component of mucus, are polymers carrying a complex and heterogeneous structure with domains that undergo a variety of molecular interactions, such as hydrophilic/hydrophobic, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. These properties are directly relevant to the numerous mucin-associated diseases, as well as delivering drugs across the mucus barrier. Therefore, in this review we discuss regional differences in mucus composition, mucus physicochemical properties, such as pore size, viscoelasticity, pH, and ionic strength. These factors are also discussed with respect to changes in mucus properties as a function of disease state. Collectively, the review seeks to provide a state of the art roadmap for researchers who must contend with this critical barrier to drug delivery. Graphical abstract
Abstract ObjectivesTo evaluate how oral and general health‐risk behaviours cluster among Brazilian adolescents. MethodsThe study comprised a total of 109 104 adolescents (52.2% female) participating in the Brazilian National School‐based Student Health Survey (PeNSE). Seventeen behaviours (including diet; oral and hand hygiene; frequency of dental visits; tobacco, alcohol and drug use; sexual behaviour; physical activity, and risk for external causes) were measured using a self‐reported questionnaire. Pairwise correlations between the health‐risk behaviours were performed, and clustering was assessed by the hierarc...
Authors: PMID: 29166204 [PubMed - in process]
Authors: Yue JK, Winkler EA, Sharma S, Vassar MJ, Ratcliff JJ, Korley FK, Seabury SA, Ferguson AR, Lingsma HF, Meeuws S, Adeoye OM, Rick JW, Robinson CK, Duarte SM, Yuh EL, Mukherjee P, Dikmen SS, McAllister TW, Diaz-Arrastia R, Valadka AB, Gordon WA, Okonkwo DO, Manley GT, , Hansen Deng Predictors of mTBI admission, referral and outcome, , and the TRACK-TBI Investigators Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical management and medical follow-up of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) presenting to emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: Overall, 168 adult patients with mTBI from the prospective...
CONCLUSIONS: Accordingly, we demonstrate the potential of mammalian hair follicles serving as an additional source for biomarker discovery and for diagnosing mTBI with high accessibility. PMID: 29157017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Mercier E, Tardif PA, Cameron PA, Émond M, Moore L, Mitra B, Ouellet MC, Frenette J, de Guise E, Le Sage N Abstract BACKGROUND: This systematic review aimed to determine the prognostic value of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) to predict post-concussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Seven databases were searched for studies evaluating the association between NSE levels and post-concussion symptoms assessed ≥ 3 months (persistent) or ≥ 7 days
CONCLUSION: Pre-injury psychosocial and demographic factors may be more important than injury severity for predicting some long-term functional outcomes post-TBI. It would likely be beneficial to assess these factors in the inpatient setting, with input from a multidisciplinary team, as an early understanding of prognostic indicators can help guide treatment for optimal functional outcomes. PMID: 29157000 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Ibañez Pérez De La Blanca MA, Fernández Mondéjar E, Gómez Jimènez FJ, Alonso Morales JM, Lombardo MDQ, Viso Rodriguez JL Abstract PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for intracerebral lesion (ICL) in older adults with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and evaluate the influence of comorbidities on outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Information was gathered on clinical history/examination, cranial computed tomography, admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, analytical and coagulation findings, and mortalit...
CONCLUSIONS: rmTBI produces acute cognitive and anxiety-like disturbances associated with inflammatory changes in brain regions involved in spatial memory and anxiety. PMID: 29156991 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSION: Young patients reported psychological problems in several areas during the chronic phase of injury, which may hinder complete reintegration and participation in society. Larger functional improvement during sub-acute rehabilitation seemed to be associated with less psychological problems in the chronic phase. PMID: 29156990 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Faugeras F, Rohaut B, Valente M, Sitt J, Demeret S, Bolgert F, Weiss N, Grinea A, Marois C, Quirins M, Demertzi A, Raimondo F, Galanaud D, Habert MO, Engemann D, Puybasset L, Naccache L Abstract BACKGROUND: The prognosis value of early clinical diagnosis of consciousness impairment is documented by an extremely limited number of studies, whereas it may convey important information to guide medical decisions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at determining if patients diagnosed at an early stage (
More News: Drugs & Pharmacology