Physicochemical properties of mucus and their impact on transmucosal drug delivery
Publication date: 30 October 2017 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 532, Issue 1 Author(s): Jasmim Leal, Hugh D.C. Smyth, Debadyuti Ghosh Mucus is a selective barrier to particles and molecules, preventing penetration to the epithelial surface of mucosal tissues. Significant advances in transmucosal drug delivery have recently been made and have emphasized that an understanding of the basic structure, viscoelastic properties, and interactions of mucus is of great value in the design of efficient drug delivery systems. Mucins, the primary non-aqueous component of mucus, are polymers carrying a complex and heterogeneous structure with domains that undergo a variety of molecular interactions, such as hydrophilic/hydrophobic, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. These properties are directly relevant to the numerous mucin-associated diseases, as well as delivering drugs across the mucus barrier. Therefore, in this review we discuss regional differences in mucus composition, mucus physicochemical properties, such as pore size, viscoelasticity, pH, and ionic strength. These factors are also discussed with respect to changes in mucus properties as a function of disease state. Collectively, the review seeks to provide a state of the art roadmap for researchers who must contend with this critical barrier to drug delivery. Graphical abstract
Authors: Olcese U Abstract The scientific study of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has long relied on comparing conditions in which consciousness is normally present with others in which it is impaired. Brain lesions offer a unique opportunity to understand which anatomical networks are needed to sustain consciousness, but provide limited insights on the patterns of neural activity that can support conscious processing. Non-REM sleep, on the other hand, has long epitomized the typical case of a non-conscious yet fully active brain. Consequently, the differences in neural activity existing between wakef...
Authors: Bosman C, Aldunate N Abstract Wakefulness and sleep are two qualitatively different behavioral states. The mechanisms underlying these behavioral states can be traced back to the coordinated functioning of cortical microcircuits. The stereotypical activity of cortical microcircuits during wakefulness and sleep shapes a cortical state, defined as an organized neuronal network functioning across time. Cortical microcircuits are conformed by pyramidal cells and several interneurons, organized into a six-layer structure that contains well defined connections across excitatory and inhibitory cells. In this orga...
Authors: Bjorness TE, Booth V, Poe GR Abstract The theta rhythm during waking has been associated with voluntary motor activity and learning processes involving the hippocampus. Theta also occurs continuously during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep where it likely serves memory consolidation. Theta amplitude builds across wakefulness and is the best indicator of the homeostatic need for non-REM (NREM) sleep. Although REM sleep is homeostatically regulated independently of NREM sleep, the drivers of REM sleep regulation are under debate. The dynamics of theta within REM sleep bouts have not been thoroughly explored. W...
Authors: Voss U, Klimke A Abstract REM sleep is a state of desynchronized electrophysiological activity of the brain. It is usually accompanied by mental activity characterized by a succession of complex visual experiences commonly referred to as dreaming. Although REM sleep and dreaming are not implicitly conjoined, when they co-occur, they have a very distinct phenomenology, as, typically, the dream plot is bizarre and incohesive which is mirrored in heightened brain activation coupled with strongly attenuated coherence levels. At the same time, owing to increased limbic system activity, REM sleep dreams are high...
In conclusion, SRIs are much more common than might have been expected, manifest in several forms and appear to be part of normal, healthy sleep. Importantly, the strong link of SRIs with sleep mentation suggests they result from some form of higher-order information processing during sleep, rather than being (fully) secondary to general restorative effects of sleep. Finally, our findings show that a large portion of the sampled population is aware of sleep's benefits for real life problem solving and experiences such benefits on a regular basis. PMID: 30324605 [PubMed - in process]
Org. Biomol. Chem., 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C8OB02411A, CommunicationChunyan Zhang, Guoying Zhang, Shizhong Luo, Chunfu Wang, Huiping Li A practical and efficient base catalyzed acetylation has been developed for the facile synthesis of a broad range of esters from simple alcohols with unactivated tert-butyl esters. This protocol could... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Org. Biomol. Chem., 2018,16,7383-7392 DOI: 10.1039/C8OB02092B, PaperMiao Hu, Yang Gao, Wanqing Wu, Jianxiao Li, Chunsheng Li, Hao Zhang, Huanfeng Jiang A convenient and efficient strategy to construct functionalized ynones by a palladium-catalyzed cascade annulation reaction has been developed. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Org. Biomol. Chem., 2018,16,7400-7416 DOI: 10.1039/C8OB01795F, PaperPhilip C. Bulman Page, Francesca S. Kinsey, Yohan Chan, Ian R. Strutt, Alexandra M. Z. Slawin, Garth A. Jones Asymmetric catalysis of the Diels –Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene and cinnamaldehydes has been studied using as catalysts a range of novel α- and β-aminoacids and aminoesters with binaphthyl and biphenyl backbones. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
CONCLUSION: Patients utilizing the LCC demonstrated high medication adherence, suggesting that injection services provided by the centers may reduce barriers to treatment and help patients with schizophrenia remain on LAI antipsychotic treatment. PMID: 30322282 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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