What Causes Microcephaly?

Patient Presentation A 5-month-old male came to clinic for his health supervision visit and followup from his neonatal intensive care stay. He was born prematurely at 28 weeks gestation and his stay was complicated by a right sided Grade III intraventricular hemorrhage, a left-sided Grade IV intraventricular hemorrhage, neonatal seizures, respiratory distress and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, acute kidney injury that had resolved, possible necrotizing enterocolitis incidents x 2, and herpes simplex encephalitis. He was on home oxygen, a nasogastric feeding tube because of aspiration risk and multiple medications. He was taken care of by his mother, maternal grandmother and home nursing. He was to start home physical therapy, and had multiple followup appointments for specialty care already arranged. The pertinent physical exam showed a small infant with a nasal canula and feeding tube in place. Weight (= 4.116 kg) and height (=54 cm) were at the 3th percentile and tracking. Head circumference was
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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Targeting protein palmitoylation decreases palmitate‑induced sphere formation of human liver cancer cells. Mol Med Rep. 2020 May 22;: Authors: Chong LW, Tsai CL, Yang KC, Liao CC, Hsu YC Abstract Although non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered a benign disorder, hepatic steatosis has been proposed to be involved in the tumorigenesis of liver cancer. However, the underlying mechanism for carcinogenesis in fatty liver diseases remains unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been hypothesized to serve a key role in tumorigenesis. Tumor formation begins with a subset of heterogeneous ce...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggested that miR‑340‑5p may protect PC12 cells against OGD/R through targeting Neurod4, which could provide important implications for the treatment of ischemia‑reperfusion injury based on miR‑340‑5p expression levels in vivo. PMID: 32468054 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Authors: Gandhi P, Klatt BN, Agrawal Y Abstract People with Alzheimer disease (AD) are at increased risk of falls and disproportionately burdened with vestibular impairment compared with healthy older adults. Although physical therapy (PT) and vestibular physical therapy (VPT) are effective rehabilitation interventions in improving balance and fall risk, referral patterns for these services in the AD population are understudied. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients seen for primary AD care at a tertiary AD referral center to investigate the frequency of rehabilitation referrals. Of the 801 people ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research
Authors: Lai R, Plakiotis C Abstract Medical training in Australia has been clouded in recent times by media reporting on the tragic suicides of multiple trainees. This has brought attention to the stressful demands of the medical profession and the often-poor wellbeing of trainees, who must balance both study and work demands. Psychiatry trainees in particular face unique stressors in the workplace, being in a profession that carries a high emotional burden. Psychiatry trainees encounter suicides by patients and colleagues at an alarmingly high rate and commonly experience isolation, unrealistic workloads and stig...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Susmitha K, Chandrasekhar V, Kiran G, Divya A, Rani GS, Sarangapani M Abstract Stroke is becoming a main cause of early death and disability in developing countries like India, and it is mostly enhanced by increased predominance of major risk factors. A detailed knowledge about the nature and magnitude of the stroke cases in this particular area is not only important for acute treatment but also it helps to prevent hospital admissions due to reoccurring stroke. The present study was conducted in the Department of Stroke at MGM Hospital, Warangal, India, to study the patterns of stroke admissions. All the c...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Intas G, Rokana V, Stergiannis P, Chalari E, Anagnostopoulos F Abstract BACKGROUND: Chronic illnesses with high level of disability can affect not only the patients but also the main caregiver who supports them. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden and sleep disorders of family caregivers of hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. The sample of the study consisted of 310 family caregivers of hemodialysis patients. The tools used were the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for sleep disorders assessment, the Zarit Burden Interview, and the Center for Epidemiolo...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Kaimara P, Plerou A, Deliyannis I Abstract Electroencephalography (EEG) systems and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are terms frequently involved in the field of neurological research. Under a technological point of view, BCI is considered to be a significant achievement within the frame of learning disabilities rehabilitation. Nevertheless, the specifications for efficient use for cognitive enhancement and its potential boundaries are under concern. Author's main objective is to discuss BCI concrete components and potential advances as well as depict potential limitations while using technological device...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our approach is feasible, reproducible and can guide novel therapeutic choices in this poor prognosis cohort, where new treatment options are urgently needed. This platform is relevant to many solid organ malignancies.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Contributors : Yejie Shi ; Jun ChenSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusSenescence-associated alterations in microglia may have profound impact on cerebral homeostasis and stroke outcomes. However, the lack of a transcriptome-wide comparison between young and aged microglia in the context of ischemia limits our understanding of aging-related mechanisms. Herein, we performed bulk RNA sequencing analysis of microglia purified from cerebral hemispheres of young adult (10-week-old) and aged (18-month-old) mice 5 days after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham operati...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research
Abstract Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs) have important roles in stroke pathology and recovery. Depending on their subtypes and locations, these NMDARs may promote either neuronal survival or death. Recently, the functions of previously overlooked NMDAR subtypes during stroke were characterized, and NMDARs expressed at different subcellular locations were found to have synergistic rather than opposing functions. Moreover, the complexity of the neuronal survival and death signaling pathways following NMDAR activation was fur...
Source: Trends in Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Trends Mol Med Source Type: research
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