Genetic Manipulation of Borrelia Spp.

Genetic Manipulation of Borrelia Spp. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2017 Sep 17;: Authors: Drecktrah D, Samuels DS Abstract The spirochetes Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi and Borrelia hermsii, the etiologic agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, respectively, cycle in nature between an arthropod vector and a vertebrate host. They have extraordinarily unusual genomes that are highly segmented and predominantly linear. The genetic analyses of Lyme disease spirochetes have become increasingly more sophisticated, while the age of genetic investigation in the relapsing fever spirochetes is just dawning. Molecular tools available for B. burgdorferi and related species range from simple selectable markers and gene reporters to state-of-the-art inducible gene expression systems that function in the animal model and high-throughput mutagenesis methodologies, despite nearly overwhelming experimental obstacles. This armamentarium has empowered borreliologists to build a formidable genetic understanding of the cellular physiology of the spirochete and the molecular pathogenesis of Lyme disease. PMID: 28918538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

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In 1977, a seminal paper described what was subsequently called Lyme arthritis1. The name “Lyme” originated from the initial investigation of the disease that was conducted in the Connecticut towns of Lyme, Old Lyme and East Haddam1. As more of the clinical manifestations of this illness were discovered, the condition became referred to as Lyme disease2-4. In 1983, the principal etio logic agent for Lyme disease in North America was identified in patients3,5. The etiologic agent became known as Borrelia burgdorferi and until fairly recently was the only species of Lyme borrelia identified to cause Lyme disease ...
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Given the variable clinical signs attributed to Borrelia burgdorferi, including infectious arthritis, neurologic disease, and behavioral changes, B burgdorferi is an important differential for decreased performance in sport horses. The primary vectors (Ixodes tick species) are expanding their range and thus Borrelia species are located in a wider area, making exposure more likely. Due to regionally high seroprevalence and vague clinical signs, diagnosis of Lyme disease in the horse is believed overestimated. Antibiotics are first-line treatment of confirmed Lyme disease. A single positive serologic test, by itself, is not ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Nicole E. Breuner, Andrias Hojgaard, Adam J. Replogle, Karen A. Boegler, Lars EisenAbstractThe relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia miyamotoi, is increasingly recognized as a cause of human illness (hard tick-borne relapsing fever) in the United States. We previously demonstrated that single nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, can transmit B. miyamotoi to experimental hosts. However, two recent epidemiological studies from the Northeastern United States indicate that human cases of hard tick-borne relapsing fever p...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Jessica L. Kostick-Dunn, Jerilyn R. Izac, John C. Freedman, Lee T. Szkotnicki, Lee D. Oliver, Richard T. Marconi
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsNon-specific symptoms after tick bite may be caused by uncommon pathogens or co-infection, therefore it should be considered in differential diagnosis after tick bite.
Source: Advances in Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Molecular Microbiology,Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
Source: Molecular Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
This study shows that humus type can be indicative of nymph abundance. Three types of humus were observed: (1) moder, (2) mull, and (3) mull-moder humus. One of them, moder humus, which is characterized by a thick layer of fragmented leaves, was found in multivariate analyses to be strongly associated with the nymph abundance. This study demonstrates that factors such as saturation deficit do not suffice to explain the differences in nymph abundance among sites. The composition of the soil and especially the type of humus should also be taken into consideration when assessing acarological risk.
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
This study suggests that accounting for landscape connectivity may improve model-based predictions of spatial spread patterns of B. burgdorferi s.s. The findings are consistent with possible past dispersal patterns of B. burgdorferi s.s. as determined by phylogeographic studies.
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: July 2018Source: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Volume 9, Issue 5Author(s): Scott C. Williams, Eliza A.H. Little, Kirby C. Stafford, Goudarz Molaei, Megan A. LinskeAbstractLyme disease continues to be the most common vector-borne disease in the United States with an estimated 330,000 human cases annually. In the eastern United States, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the primary vector of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, is a primary reservoir host. In four residential neighborhoods in Connecticut over three years, we tested the...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: July 2018Source: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Volume 9, Issue 5Author(s): Sanne C. Ruyts, Dries Landuyt, Evy Ampoorter, Dieter Heylen, Steffen Ehrmann, Elena C. Coipan, Erik Matthysen, Hein Sprong, Kris VerheyenAbstractAn increasing number of studies have investigated the consequences of biodiversity loss for the occurrence of vector-borne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. As host species differ in their ability to transmit the Lyme borreliosis bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. to ticks, increased host diversity can decrease disease preval...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
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