Australian National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory annual report, 2014.

Australian National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory annual report, 2014. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2017 Jun 30;41(2):E161-E180 Authors: Roberts J, Hobday L, Ibrahim A, Aitken T, Thorley B Abstract Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation, Australia conducts surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years of age as the main method to monitor its polio-free status. Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2014, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported from clinical surveillance and Australia reported 1.4 non-polio AFP cases per 100,000 children, meeting the WHO performance criterion for a sensitive surveillance system. Non-polio enteroviruses can also be associated with AFP and enterovirus A71 and echovirus types 6 and 7 were identified from clinical specimens from cases of AFP. Globally, 359 cases of polio were reported in 2014, with the 3 endemic countries, Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan, accounting for 95% of the cases. In May 2014, the WHO declared the international spread of wild poliovirus to be a public health emergency of international concern and has since maintained recommendations for polio vaccination of travellers from countries reporting cases of wild pol...
Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commun Dis Intell Q Rep Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: As OPV isn't used in Italy since 2002, recovery of Sabin-like polioviruses indicates the possibility of poliovirus reintroduction, considering also the important exposure to migratory flows. Finally, monitoring the environmental circulation of NPEV, could compensate for the lack of a surveillance system of the infections they cause. PMID: 31517896 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Acta Biomed Source Type: research
This study describes AFP surveillance in Spain from 1998 to 2015. During this time, 678 AFP cases were reported to the Spanish National Surveillance Network. The mean notification rate was 0.58 AFP cases/100,000 population under 15 years old (range: 0.45/100,000-0.78/100,000). Two periods (P) are described: P1 (1998-2006) with the AFP notification rate ranging from 0.66/100,000 to 0.78/100,000, peaking in 2001 (0.84/100,000); and P2 (2007-2015) when the AFP rate ranged from 0.43/100,000 to 0.57/100,000, with the lowest rate in 2009 (0.31/100,000). No poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, although two Sabin...
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
ConclusionsAcute flaccid myelitis is an uncommon condition in childhood with a high rate of significant long‐term morbidity. AFM should be considered in children presenting with acute limb pain and weakness.
Source: European Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
VIRO-TypeNed is a collaborative molecular surveillance platform facilitated through a web-based database. Genetic data in combination with epidemiological, clinical and patient data are shared between clinical and public health laboratories, as part of the surveillance underpinning poliovirus eradication. We analysed the combination of data submitted from 2010 to 2014 to understand circulation patterns of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) of public health relevance. Two epidemiological patterns were observed based on VIRO-TypeNed data and classical surveillance data dating back to 1996: (i) endemic cyclic, characterised by pr...
Source: Eurosurveillance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusions: Findings from this investigation indicate the absence of polioviruses in the children studied. This is an indication of good polio immunization coverage in these communities. However, more intensive and periodic surveillance is required to confirm the presence or exclude the absence of polioviruses in these communities and other parts of Nigeria.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
An approach is proposed for environmental surveillance of poliovirus by concentrating sewage samples with tangential flow filtration (TFF) followed by deep sequencing of viral RNA. Subsequent to testing the method with samples from Finland, samples from Pakistan, a country endemic for poliovirus, were investigated. Genomic sequencing was either performed directly, for unbiased identification of viruses regardless of their ability to grow in cell cultures, or after virus enrichment by cell culture or immunoprecipitation. Bioinformatics enabled separation and determination of individual consensus sequences. Overall, deep seq...
Source: Eurosurveillance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract An approach is proposed for environmental surveillance of poliovirus by concentrating sewage samples with tangential flow filtration (TFF) followed by deep sequencing of viral RNA. Subsequent to testing the method with samples from Finland, samples from Pakistan, a country endemic for poliovirus, were investigated. Genomic sequencing was either performed directly, for unbiased identification of viruses regardless of their ability to grow in cell cultures, or after virus enrichment by cell culture or immunoprecipitation. Bioinformatics enabled separation and determination of individual consensus sequences....
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio entero...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Authors: Roberts JA, Hobday LK, Ibrahim A, Aitkin T, Thorley BR Abstract Australia conducts surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years of age as the main method to monitor its polio-free status in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2013, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported fr...
Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commun Dis Intell Q Rep Source Type: research
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