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Health systems in low income countries - four new overviews

Four new Cochrane EPOC  overviews of reviews show reliable evidence on the effects of different ways of organising, financing, and governing health systems in low-income countries and identify important evidence gaps.Links to the new overviews in the Cochrane Library:Delivery arrangments |Financial arrangements |Governance arrangements |Implementation strategiesStrengthening health systems in low-income countries is key to achieving universal health coverage and achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goals. Achieving these goals requires informed decisions about health systems. Systematic reviews on the effects of different health system arrangements are essential for making informed decisions, and many such reviews are available. However, policymakers and other stakeholders may struggle to identify which reviews are reliable and what are the key results.Broad overviews of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers, their support staff, and other stakeholders to identify strategies for addressing problems with how their health systems are organised, financed, and governed and with identifying effective strategies for implementing changes. It can also help to identify needs and priorities for new evaluations of health system arrangements and for systematic reviews.A team ofCochrane researchers from Argentina, Chile, Norway, and South Africa prepared four overviews of the available evidence from up-to-date systematic reviews about the effec...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - Category: Information Technology Authors: Source Type: news

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Authors: Abiko T, Tsuchikawa T, Miyauchi K, Wada M, Kyogoku N, Shichinohe T, Miyahara Y, Kageyama S, Ikeda H, Shiku H, Hirano S Abstract Since 2009, a cancer vaccine clinical trial was conducted with melanoma antigen gene-A4 as an immunogenic agent. The levels of IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3, which are known to be Type 1 T helper cell-associated antibodies, and the levels of IgG4 and IgE, which are known to be Type 2 T helper cell-associated antibodies, were measured and used as biomarkers for predicting therapeutic effect. The results of the present study indicated a strong positive correlation between IgG2 and IgG4, with ...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
Authors: Jiang L, Yu Z, Lin Y, Cui L, Yao S, Lv L, Liu J Abstract To assess the effect of low-molecular-weight polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABP-AW1) as an immunoadjuvant therapy for type 1 T-helper (Th1) responses in tumorigenesis, C57BL/6 mice were inoculated subcutaneously with ovalbumin (E.G7-OVA). After 3, 10 and 17 days, the mice were immunized with PBS, OVA alone, or OVA and ABP-AW1, at low (50 µg), intermediate (100 µg) or high (200 µg) doses. Tumor growth was examined and compared among the groups, as were the following parameters: Splenocyte viability/proliferation, perip...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
This study presents a rational design approach to discovery synthetic peptide vaccine candidates from endogenous proteins for chronic non-infectious diseases immunological therapeutics. The approach described the screening of key antigenic amino acid residues of the interleukine-13, which is up-regulated expression in asthma, followed by the development of immunological helper epitope peptides via an integrative computational and experimental method. Notably, this totally synthetic peptide vaccine was capable of stimulating humoral immune responses much stronger than those of parental antigenic peptides by enhancing the ef...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Students opposing a neo-fascist party have scuffled with police in Milan at one of at least a dozen rallies being held across Italy on the last weekend to protest before the March 4 national election
Source: ABC News: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news
Conclusions Our multiplex assay is a precise and reliable method that can be used instead of the Quellung reaction for S. pneumoniae serotyping studies.
Source: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Conclusions Thirty-three distinct patterns were distinguished. In the case of respiratory symptoms in patients with diabetes and close household contact patients, TB can be considered as the important differential diagnosis with unique patterns.
Source: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
GIDEON what’s new summary: February 21 to February 24, 2018 Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (11 updates) 11 DiseasesMap Infectious Diseases – Diseases (95 updates) 37 Diseases57 Country notes1 New Disease Synonym AddedMap Infectious Diseases – Drugs (1 updates) 1 Drug Infectious Diseases – Vaccines (3 updates) 3 Vaccines Microbiology – Bacteria (2 updates) 1 Bacteria1 Microbes – New Microbiology – Mycobacteria (1 updates) 1 Mycobacteria The post Update: February 24, 2018 appeared first on GIDEON - Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Online Network.
Source: GIDEON blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: What's New Source Type: blogs
Authors: Suh DH, Kim M, Lee KH, Eom KY, Kjeldsen MK, Mirza MR, Kim JW Abstract In 2017, 10 topics were selected as major clinical research advances in gynecologic oncology. For cervical cancer, efficacy and safety analysis results of a 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and long-term impact of reduced dose of quadrivalent vaccine were updated. Brief introduction of KEYNOTE trials of pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction between programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, followed. Tailored surveillance programs for gynecologic cancer related with Lynch syndrome and ...
Source: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Gynecol Oncol Source Type: research
This study was aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by DNA plasmids generated from the OmpA and OmpB genes of R. rickettsii in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rickettsial (sensitized) patients compared to healthy subjects. Methods: Plasmids OmpA-49, OmpB-15 and OmpB-24 were generated in the pVAX vector. Macrophages derived from the THP-1 cell line were transfected in vitro with the plasmids and were co-cultured with T-lymphocytes from sensitized subjects and healthy subjects to evaluate cell proliferation and cytokine production. Results: The OmpB-24 plasmid induced proliferative response in human ly...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology Author(s): Richard T. Kangethe, Rudolf Pichler, Francis N.J. Chuma, Giovanni Cattoli, Viskam Wijewardana During both human and animal vaccine development phases, animal testing is necessary to demonstrate vaccine efficacy. Since the number of antigen candidates for testing is usually large when developing a potential vaccine, it is too costly, time consuming and would involve higher risks to carry out selection using in vivo models. The currently available in vitro assays that measure immunogenicity do not adequately reprod...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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