Morphine and the blood-brain barrier: diffusion, uptake, or efflux?
Summary BackgroundFew reports exist regarding the optimal depth of a left‐sided central venous catheter in pediatric patients. We aimed to provide a guideline for the optimal depth of central venous catheters at the left internal jugular vein in infants, using anatomical landmarks, age, height, and weight. MethodsA two‐stage study was conducted. In the first observational study, infants aged ≤1 year and scheduled for elective surgery requiring a central venous catheter were enrolled. The tip of the central venous catheter was confirmed using transthoracic echocardiography. Linear regression modeling was perform...
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, the association of disorders of the trigeminal nerve pathway, including TTS, with the use of synthetic marijuana has not been previously reported. The long-term neurologic effects of synthetic marijuana are difficult to predict, and the pathologic underpinnings of TTS are largely unknown. Further studies dedicated to exploring the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms may translate into effective therapies and approaches to halt and reverse the process and prevent tissue destruction and cosmetic disfigurement. PMID: 29026366 [PubMed]
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that an IPACK block reduced opioid consumption by providing effective supplemental analgesia following TKA compared to the FNC-only technique. ACB with IPACK provided equivalent analgesia and improved physical therapy performance, allowing earlier hospital discharge. PMID: 29026354 [PubMed]
CONCLUSION: We found a marginal association between BMI and an increased risk of developing AKI in adult patients after having noncardiac laparoscopic surgery. The BMI effect became insignificant when potential mediator variables were considered. The association of BMI and AKI after noncardiac laparoscopic surgery is likely mediated through components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID: 29026353 [PubMed]
Dozens of surgeries at Denver VA hospital put off because of doctor shortage – The Denver Post
In conclusion, hyperoxia proved to be safe during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. The lacking organ-protective effects of hyperoxia compared to resuscitation from near-lethal hemorrhage suggest a dependence of the effectiveness of hyperoxia from shock severity. In line with our previous report, therapeutic hypothermia (and rewarming) was confirmed to be detrimental most likely due to vascular barrier dysfunction.
Conclusion: Hemorrhagic hypotension in anesthetized mice causes biphasic responses of RSNA with an initial increase, followed by a sustained decrease, and a progressive decrease in HR. The initial sympathoexcitation is mediated by carotid sinus baroreceptors, while the later sympathoinhibition and bradycardia are mediated via the TRPV1 signals of vagal afferents.
Conclusion: The drugs ALM, BHB/M, and P-188 provide beneficial effects as adjuncts to hypotensive resuscitation in this HS model by mechanisms involving changes at the microvascular level including the glycocalyx.
Conclusions: These results suggest that strain-specific changes in chromatin and transcription in response to chemical exposure lead to a “compensation” for underlying genetic-driven interindividual differences in the baseline chromatin and transcriptional state. This work represents an example of how chemical and environmental exposures can be evaluated to better understand gene-by-environment interactions, and it demonstrates the important role of chromatin response in transcriptomic changes and, potentially, in deleterious effects of exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1937 Received: 21 March 2017 Revis...
Summary Mechanical ventilation of the anesthetized infant requires careful attention to equipment and ventilator settings to assure optimal gas exchange and minimize the potential for lung injury. Apparatus dead space, defined as dead space resulting from devices placed between the endotracheal tube and the Y‐piece of the breathing circuit, is the primary source of dead space controlled by the clinician. Due to the small tidal volumes required by infants and neonates, it is easy to create excessive apparatus dead space resulting in unintended hypercarbia or increased minute ventilation in an effort to achieve a desirable...